Group members tend to be uncertain and anxious about their roles, the people in charge and the group’s goalsMutual trust is low
Time of testingIndividuals try to determine how they fit into the power structureProcrastination may occur
Norming (Group Cohesiveness)
Questions about authority and power are resolved through unemotional, matter-of-fact group discussion
Group cohesiveness a “we feeling” binding group members together
Activity focused on solving task problemsClimate of open communication, strong cooperation, and lots of helping behavior
Work is done. Time to move on to other things
Group members drift in different directions as their interests and expectations change
Individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines.
The work group literally falls apart as subgroups battle for control.
expected behaviors for a given position
attemptsto explain how these social expectations influence employee behavior
Occurs when “the sum total of what role senders expect of the focal person far exceeds what he or she is able to do.”
Experienced when “different members of the role set expect different things of the focal person
occurs when “members of the role set fail to communicate to the focal person expectations they have or information needed to perform the role, either because they do not have the information or because they deliberately withhold it
an attitude, opinion, feeling, or action—shared by two or more people— that guides their behavior
How Norms Are Developed (4)
1.Explicit statements by supervisors or co-workers
2.Critical events in the group’s history
4.Carryover behaviors from past situations
Why Norms are Enforced (4)
Help the group or organization survive
Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations
Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations
Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity
enable the work group to define, clarify, and pursue a common purpose
foster supportive and constructive interpersonal relationships
-Within a contingency management framework group size depends on the manager’s objective for the group.
-If a high-quality decision is the main objective, then a three- to five-member group would be appropriate
-If the objective is to generate creative ideas, encourage participation, socialize new members, engage in training, or communicate policies, then groups much larger than five could be justified
-As group size increases, group leaders tended to become more directive, and group member satisfaction tends to decline slightly.
the distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition
“a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action
Symptoms of GroupThink
invulnerability, inherent morality, rationalization, stereotyped views of opposition, self-censorship, illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, mindguards
Groups with a moderate amount of cohesiveness produce better decisions than low- or high-cohesive groups.Highly cohesive groups victimized by groupthink make the poorest decisions, despite high confidence in those decisions
1.Each member of the group should be assigned the role of critical evaluator.
2.Top-level executives should not use policy committees to rubber-stamp decisions that have already been made.
3.Different groups with different leaders should explore the same policy questions.