Chpt 10 Group Dynamics

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Chpt 10 Group Dynamics
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2013-04-09 15:22:37
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  1. Key Social Skills For Managers (4)
    • 1)Social Perception
    • 2)Impression mgmt
    • 3)Persuasion+Social Influence
    • 4)Social Adaptability
  2. Group
    two or more freely interacting people who share collective norms and goals and have a common identity
  3. Sociological Criteria of a Group (4)
    • 1)Two or more freely interacting individuals
    • 2)Collective Norms
    • 3)Collective Goals
    • 4)Common Identity
  4. Formal Group
    group is formed by a manager to help the organization accomplish its goals.
  5. Informal Group
    exists when the members’ overriding purpose of getting together is friendship
  6. Tuckman's 5 Stage Theory of Group Development
    Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning
  7. Forming
    Group members tend to be uncertain and anxious about their roles, the people in charge and the group’s goalsMutual trust is low
  8. Storming
    Time of testingIndividuals try to determine how they fit into the power structureProcrastination may occur
  9. Norming (Group Cohesiveness)
    • Questions about authority and power are resolved through unemotional, matter-of-fact group discussion
    • Group cohesiveness a “we feeling” binding group members together
  10. Performing
    Activity focused on solving task problemsClimate of open communication, strong cooperation, and lots of helping behavior
  11. Adjourning
    Work is done. Time to move on to other things
  12. De-Norming
    Group members drift in different directions as their interests and expectations change
  13. De-Storming
    Individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines.
  14. De-Forming
    The work group literally falls apart as subgroups battle for control.
  15. Roles
    expected behaviors for a given position
  16. Role Theory
    attemptsto explain how these social expectations influence employee behavior
  17. Role Overload
    Occurs when “the sum total of what role senders expect of the focal person far exceeds what he or she is able to do.”
  18. Role Conflict
    Experienced when “different members of the role set expect different things of the focal person
  19. Role Ambiguity
    occurs when “members of the role set fail to communicate to the focal person expectations they have or information needed to perform the role, either because they do not have the information or because they deliberately withhold it
  20. Norms
    an attitude, opinion, feeling, or action—shared by two or more people— that guides their behavior
  21. How Norms Are Developed (4)
    • 1.Explicit statements by supervisors or co-workers
    • 2.Critical events in the group’s history
    • 3.Primacy
    • 4.Carryover behaviors from past situations
  22. Why Norms are Enforced (4)
    • Help the group or organization survive
    • Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations
    • Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations
    • Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity
  23. Task Roles
    enable the work group to define, clarify, and pursue a common purpose
  24. Maintenance Roles
    foster supportive and constructive interpersonal relationships
  25. Group Size
    • -Within a contingency management framework group size depends on the manager’s objective for the group.
    • -If a high-quality decision is the main objective, then a three- to five-member group would be appropriate
    • -If the objective is to generate creative ideas, encourage participation, socialize new members, engage in training, or communicate policies, then groups much larger than five could be justified
    • -As group size increases, group leaders tended to become more directive, and group member satisfaction tends to decline slightly.
  26. Asch Effect
    the distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition
  27. GroupThink
    “a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action
  28. Symptoms of GroupThink
    invulnerability, inherent morality, rationalization, stereotyped views of opposition, self-censorship, illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, mindguards
  29. GroupThink Prevention
    • Groups with a moderate amount of cohesiveness produce better decisions than low- or high-cohesive groups.Highly cohesive groups victimized by groupthink make the poorest decisions, despite high confidence in those decisions
    • 1.Each member of the group should be assigned the role of critical evaluator.
    • 2.Top-level executives should not use policy committees to rubber-stamp decisions that have already been made.
    • 3.Different groups with different leaders should explore the same policy questions.

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