PTG 105-Exam3 -Lecture 16- 6

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PTG 105-Exam3 -Lecture 16- 6
2013-04-09 16:53:15
PTG 105 Exam3 Lecture 16

PTG 105-Exam3 -Lecture 16- 6
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  1. Define cirrhosis:
    development of fibrosis and regenerative nodules of hepatocytes, where normal tissue framework is destroyed
  2. What is the term for fibrosis and development of regenerative nodules of hepatocytes, where normal tissue frameowrk is destroyed?
  3. Cirrhosis is the end result of what?
    Most serious chronic liver disease
  4. What are general signs and symptoms of Cirrhosis?
    • nonspecific
    • anorexia, weight loss, jaundice, spide angiomas, gynecomastia
  5. What are complication of cirrhosis?
    • portal hypertension
    • ascites
    • progressive liver failure
    • hepatic encephalopathy
    • hepatocellular carcinoma
  6. What is a manifestation of portal hypertenstion that results from Cirrhosis?
    Esophageal varicies
  7. Cirrhosis is how common a cause of death in the western world?
    top 10 causes
  8. Why doe Cirrhosis lead to portal hypertension?
    Altered blood flow throu the liver due to fibrosis
  9. How long does it take for cirrhosis to develop?
    Months to years
  10. A finely nodular pattern of cirrhosis indicates what etiology?
    Alcoholic Cirrhosis
  11. What liver morphology indicates alcoholic cirrhosis?
    Finely nodular pattern (Laennec's cirrhosis)
  12. What is Laennec's cirrhosis?
    A finely nodular pattern of cirrhosis
  13. Larger regenerative nodules and broader irregular bands of fibrous tissue indicate what etiology of cirrhosis?
    Idiopathuc and chronic cirrhosis
  14. Morphology of cirrhosis of the liver aids in determining what?
    The etiology
  15. What is the most common cuase of portal hypertension?
  16. What are the consequences of portal hypertension?
    • Varicies
    • Splenomegaly
    • Ascites
  17. Ascites, Splenomegaly and Varicies are complictions of what disease?
    Portal Hypertension
  18. What are the two most common forms of varicies?
    Esophageal and rectal (aka hemorrhoids)
  19. Splenomegaly is accompanied by what other issues when developed from portal hypertension?
    • Leukocytopenia
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Anemia
  20. What is ascites?
    colletion fo excess fluid in in the abdominal cavity
  21. What is the term for collection of excess fluid in the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity?
  22. What amount of excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity is detectable clinically?
  23. What are the causes of Ascites?
    • hypoalbunemia due to liver disease
    • increased back pressure of teh portal vein and lymph vessels due to fibrosis
  24. Excess protein and back pressure in the portal vein can lead to what condition?
  25. Can Ascites be fatal?
    Yes, if infection occur and lead to peritonitis
  26. Cardiac failure or shock leads to what conditions in the liver?
    • hypoperfusion
    • tissue hypoxia
    • necrosis
  27. Cardiac failure and shock cause necrosis in what part of the liver?
    Hepatocytes in the center of the lobule
  28. How does liver tissue appear after cardiac shock or failue?
    Varigated gross appearance
  29. Microscoplically what changes would occur in the liver due to Heart failure or shck?
    congestion in the center lobule
  30. What is the distinct pattern of fibrosis that occurs in the liver due to cardiac shock or failure?
    Cardiac sclerosis
  31. What is cardiac sclerosis?
    Liver damage pattern due to long standing injury by Cardiac shock or failure
  32. What does cardiac sclerosis of the liver look like?
    Nutmeg liver
  33. What is nutmeg liver?
    Pattern associated with Cardiac sclerosis of the liver
  34. What is the western prevalance of Gallstones?
  35. How do Gallstone develop?
    • bile in the gallbladder becomes supersaturated with cholesterol
    • OR
    • Bile stasis
  36. When Cholesterol supersaturates the Gallbladder, what disease occurs?
  37. When there is bile stasis, what disease can occur?
  38. What are the three types of Gallstones?
    • Cholesterol (80%)
    • bin pigment
    • Calcium based
  39. Most Gallstones are moade of what?
  40. What are the predisposing factors for Gallstones?
    • female
    • obeisity
    • increasign with age
    • Native
    • oral contraceptives (estrogen)
    • chronic hemolysis
  41. A femal with chronic hemolysis, on oral contraceptives, that is obese and increasing in age and is Native has a high risk of what?
  42. What are the symptoms of Gallstones?
    Usually asymptomatic except after meals when there is pain
  43. How are Gallstones diagnosed?
  44. What is the treatment for Gallstones?
  45. Cholecystectomy is the treatment for what disease?
  46. What are complications associated with Gallstones?
    • Cholecystitis
    • obstruction of biliary tree
    • Jaundice
    • pancreastitis
    • perforation
    • fistula
    • carcinoma
  47. What is pancreatitis?
    Inflammtion of the pancrease with enzyme necrosis
  48. Inflammation of the pancreas with enzyme necrosis is what disease?
  49. How does pancreatitis develop?
    Enzymes escape from the acinar ducts and digest the pancreas and surrouding fatty tissue
  50. When enzymes escape from the acinar ducts and digest the pancreas and surrounding fatty tissue what disease is this?