Extras for Bio

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  1. Explain amplification.
    • amplified by levers (the auditory ossicles), which vibrate and set in motion fluid in the cochlea
    • -Air pressure is amplified through the ear drum and the oval window like a pinpoint
  2. The Middle Ear is also called the __. It communicates with the __ via the __. 
    - What does this permit?
    • tympanic cavity
    • nasopharynx
    • auditory (Eustachian tube)
    • equalization of pressures on either side of the tympanic membrane
  3. The middle ear encloses and protects __. 
    What are they called.
    • three auditory ossicles (these hang from ligaments from the ceiling)
    • malleus (hammer)
    • incus (anvil)
    • stapes (stirrup)
  4. Three steps of sound and hearing
    • 1) sound waves arrive at the tympanic membrane
    • 2) The movement of hte tympanic membrane displaces the auditory ossicles. 
    • 3) displacement of the audtoriy ossicles causes movement of the stapes at the oval window, creating a pressure wave in the perilymph of the cochlea
    • 4) The pressure waves distort the basilar membrane on their way to the round window of the scala tympani
    • 5) vibration of the basilar membrane causes vibraiton of hair cells against the tectorial membrane
    • 6) information about the region and the intensity of stimulation is relayed to the CNS over the cochlear branch of cranial nerve VIII
  5. What is the organ of corti?
    • important organ; it's the organ for hearing
    • The cochlea on a larger scale is the organ for hearing
    • This is where the distortion becomes action potential; belongs to the inner ear
  6. True or False: 
    The vestibular apparatus is for balance and equilibrium.
  7. Explain rods in day and light.
    • Rods do not fire in light. They only release glutamate in the dark.
    • In light, rhodopsin is active; Na+ channels are closed; rods are hyperpolarized; no glutamate
    • In dark, rhodopsin is inactive, Na+ channels are open, rod is depolarized; glutamate is released
  8. Myopia
    eyeball is too long and light is reflected in front of retina
  9. What is LASIK surgery?
    the interior layers of hte cornea are reshaped and recovered by the flap of original outer corneal epithelium
  10. Night blindness
    results from deficiency of Vitamin A
  11. Explain the visual pathways to the brain?
    • optic nerves: contain axons from ganglion cells of the retina
    • optic chiasm: axons fro medial visual field cross; lateral stay on same side
    • Thalamus
    • Occipital lobe
  12. What does the bipolar cell layer do to hte ganglion cell layer in the dark?
    suppresses it
  13. When do ganglion cells fire?
    in the light
  14. Direction of light?
    • axon sheet
    • ganglion cell layer
    • bipolar cell layer
    • rods and cone cell layer
  15. Interneuron
    entire neuron and all fibers located within the CNS; integrate sensory input and motor output
  16. Sensory neurosn
    • convey info from skin and joints
    • carry signals to the CNS
    • cell bodies located w/in dorsal root ganglion
  17. Where are ligand-gated ion channels located?
    • dendrites and cell bodies
    • right at the axon hillock
  18. Where are voltage-gated ion channels located?
    on axons
  19. Where do graded potentials occur?
    at synapses on dendrites and neuronal cell bodies
  20. Which gates does GABA open? WHy?
    • K+ channels
    • because it's hyperpolarizing
  21. Where is the graded potential happening?
    at the chemical synapse; specifically, at the post-synaptic membrane
  22. What is Ca2+ necessary for?
    all exocytosis; enables it to fuse and release NT; synaptic vesicles
  23. Which channels does GABA open?
    K+ and Cl-
  24. Which channels does Glutamate open?
    Na+ and Ca2+
  25. Which NTs are available at low concentrations with specific jobs?
    • dop.
    • ser.
    • nor-epi.
  26. True or False:
    Only five ions will influx.
    • False
    • four ions
  27. The three NT that open/ close channels are which?
    • GABA
    • glutamate
    • acetylcholine
  28. The anterior and posterior dorsal horns are __ matter, while the dorsal, lateral  columns are __ matter.
    • grey
    • white
  29. precentral gyrus is for what?
    motor control
  30. dorsal root ganglion
    part of the peripheral system; located adjacent the spinal cord; one for each spinal nerve; contains cell bodies of vast majorities of sensory neurons
  31. upper motor neurons
    • indirectly initiate movement
    • cell bodies located in precentral gyri
    • axons project to lower motor neurons
  32. lower motor neurons
    • directly initiate movement
    • cell bodies located in ventral horns of spinal cord
    • axons project to skeletal muscle
  33. When do ganglion cells fire?
    • when they are inhibited.
    • when they are stimulated, they don't fire
  34. When are NT released?
    • in the dark
    • when you perceive no light, the rods nad cones are firing
    • When in the light, they stop
  35. True or False:
    Medial fibers remain hte same. lateral fibers cross.
    false: medial fibers cross. Lateral remain the same
  36. What is the only molecule actually changing in response to light?
  37. Animals with compound eyes?
    • polychaete
    • crustaceans
    • insects
Card Set:
Extras for Bio
2013-04-09 23:41:28
BIO 220

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