MODGREEK 325 Challenge Images Set 1

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    • Mycenean (Bronze Age) Cyclopean Wall on the Acropolis
    • Prehistorical ruins from before the classical Acropolis (indicates Athens is an ANCIENT city)
    • This is the view from the Temple of Nike
    • Made of stones so large that it was believed to have been made by the cyclopes
    • Defended what is assumed to have been a palace on the Acropolis which has been wiped off of the Acropolis from centuries of use - only things left are a few retaining walls and a limestone column base
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    • Archaic column drums built into the Acropolis' north fortification walls
    • Unfluted columns from the archaic pre-Parthenon used to pay homage to the Acropolis' destruction in the Persian War
    • Shows the Athenian tendency to recycle the Old Acropolis in visible and honorable ways
    • After the Persians sacked and burned the Acropolis there were only little bits of the temples left
    • Old friezes from the Old Temple (under the Erechtheion) are at the top of the wall too
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    • View of Erechtheion (SW corner) porch of maidens (Caryatids) shows supporting foundation of Old Temple of Athena Polias
    • Old Temple built on the ruins of the tomb of Kekrops
    • Another instance of Athenian reuse of debris left from the Persian War to create a new Acropolis and honor the old
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    • Parthenon as seen from Propylaia (3/4 view from West)
    • Two sets of columns: 8x17 outside porch and 6x15 inside porch
    • 2 parts inside that aren't connected
    • Everything is curved as optical refinements so the building looks straight but not bulky
    • Mixes Doric and Ionic styles
    • Peripteral = columns on every face
    • Destroyed by the Turks (not decayed)
    • West became the Christian front, the original front of the Parthenon was on the East facade
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    • Decorated elements of the Parthenon
    • All stones are curved to appear straight and not bulky
    • Athenians thought they were the central point of the world that brought together the east/west and old/new cultures (Doric and Ionic)
    • Homage to the technical superiority of the Athenians
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    • British Museum Duveen Gallery
    • Location of the "Elgin Marbles" that Lord Elgin bought off of the Turks from 1799-1803 and then sold out of bankruptcy to the British government later on

    • Marbles belong:
    •        Rectangular room to mimic the Parthenon
    •        Grayscale with two columns to seem "classical"
    •        Open ceiling to make it feel like the marbles are outside

    • Marbles don't belong:
    •        Marbles displayed facing inward - not as they would have been seen on the Parthenon
    •        Displayed as a complete set of art as if nothing is missing (over half of the frieze is still in Greece)

    • Cleaning job in the 1930's to try to make them 'whiter' than the marbles in Athens (and therefore better cared for) ended up destroying the face of the marbles a little - covered up by the BM for a long time
    • Example of the tensions between the other nations and Greece about who has the right to lay claim to Athenian history
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    • Parthenon reflected on the glass surface of the completely parallel Parthenon Gallery of the Acropolis Museum
    • Represents a continuation of the Parthenon in the reflection (as a continuation of the ancient Athenian past in modern Athens) but is also nothing like the Parthenon due to it's modern design (like modern Athenians aren't trying to be like the ancients)
    • Built on piers above an ancient archaeological dig site
    • Top floor dedicated to the Parthenon, other two floors are dedicated to the rest of the Acropolis
    • Developed to contend with the British Museum (whose main argument was that Athens wasn't an able curator of the Marbles) to get "Elgin's Marbles" returned to their home in Athens
    • Frieze marbles housed inside of the building for protection from pollution - faces outwards, has gaps and obvious replicas where the "Elgin Marbles" belong
    • Brings the Acropolis down into the modern city of Athens
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    • Traces of the foundations of the Old Temple of Athena Polias underneath the Erechtheion
    • Again shows reuse and homage to the old Acropolis
    • Shows how the classical Periclean Athenians got around the Plataian Oath
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    • Excavation below the New Acropolis Museum
    • Dates even earlier than the Bronze Age
    • Establishes Athens' presence in Pre-History (once again, it is an ANCIENT city)
    • Athens established that it was able to curate its own Acropolis to the British Museum and at the same time managed to preserve an important archaeological site (since building anywhere in Athens uncovers some kind of archaeological site)
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    • Pnyx and "Bema" for speakers
    • Foundation of democratic Athens
    • Made by Kleisthenes as a place for assembly every 9 days for yes/no voting
    • In the 5th C the Bema (podium) faced out toward the sea as a symbol of Athenian expansion
    • After the Peloponnesian War in 403, the Spartans made them reorient the Bema to face toward the assembly and the city
    • Athens no longer a powerful nation
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    • Ostraka with "Themistocles, son of Neocles" written on them
    • Broken pieces of pottery used to vote someone out of the city for 10 years - who could then return once the 10 years were up (sort of a non-permanent exile)
    • Began in 490 BCE to get rid of friends and supporters of the Peisistratids but later ended up used as a political weapon for power
    • First ostracism in 484: Xanthippos (political rival of Themistokles, who used ostracism to gain control of Athens politically)
    • In 472 Themistokles was ostracized with the same political agenda that he used on Xanthippos
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    • Shrine of Asklepius (Asklepion) near the Theatre of Dionysus
    • Built after the plague of 429 BCE in honor of Asklepius (the god of medicine) - son of Apollo and Koronis (mortal woman)
    • Born mortal and obtained immortality - like Heracles
    • Cult originally brought into Athens privately by Telemachos but taken over by the state in the 4th C after the plague
    • Functioned as a sanctuary - sort of a hospital
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    • Ancient bottles with traces of Hemlock from the site of the city prison in the Ancient Agora
    • Execution used for the upper class because it was a more "humane" way to be killed
    • Used to execute various generals in the Peloponnesian war that were used as scapegoats for the failure of the democratic leaders in Athens of the time
    • Socrates fought to save them - only person who spoke out against the failing system
    • Socrates himself was killed by hemlock in 399 as another scapegoat for the loss of the war (accused of being atheist and corrupting the youth) - completed the nasty murder cycle that he tried to stop with the generals in the first place
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    • Parthenon W. porch with Doric Metopes and Triglyphs (exterior) and Ionic Frieze (interior)
    • Again shows the Athenians as technically advanced and who brought old/new and east/west together in its designs
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    • W. Facade and pediment and detail of Parthenon W. Metope, Amazon on a Horse
    • Amazon dressed as a Persian (mixture of myth and reality)
    • Mocking the Persians for their cowardly fighting (archery) and their feminine war garb
    • Compares the Persians to the wild barbaric women of Athenian history - Amazonomachy
    • Symbolizes the battle of civilization vs barbarism that Athens has been fighting since its foundation
    • East vs. West
    • The Persian War was seen in the superhuman dimensions of legend in the eyes of the classical Athenians
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    • Propylaia gateway faces west and aligns with Salamis (center horizon)
    • Memorializes the destruction of the Acropolis by the Persians and the Athenian naval victory at Salamis
    • Victory courtesy of Themistokles
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    • Parthenon E. facade with fittings for Alexander's shields and traces of Nero's inscription below the Triglyphs and Metopes
    • Example of foreigners (both other Greeks and Romans) trying to lay claim on Athenian history
    • Incorporate themselves into the Parthenon as a means for ruling Athens as a part of Athenian history rather than a complete foreigner
    • Alexander put 14 shields up on the east facade that were removed by Lakhares in the early 3rd century and then replaced (and added to the north and south sides as well)
    • Alexander also dedicated 300 suits of Persian armor to Athena
    • Alexander used the Parthenon to remind the Athenians of his power - he had conquered their victory monument over the Persians while simultaneously conquering the Persians in their own turf
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    • Monument of Dexileos in Kerameikos Cemetery
    • Funerary monument - important because it shows both his birth and death dates - implies his wealth (member of the aristocracy)
    • Dates explain why he shouldn't be blamed for the problems that Athens had with the aristocracy because he was too young to be the source of the problems when the 30 tyrants messed everything up in 404 - he was only 11
    • Ostentatious show of culture - eventually banned in this magnitude
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    • Choregic monument of Lysikrates
    • Tripod to hold his 'academy award' - a monument dedicated to the producer who paid for a play to be performed (the award was given to the producer = choregos, who then paid for an elaborate monument to show it off)
    • Located in the "Plaka Proper"
    • Frieze of Dionysus (god of theatre) fighting the pirates and turning them into dolphins at the top
    • Earliest use of Corinthian order on the exterior of a building that we know of
    • There is an entire street dedicated to these monuments
    • They flaunt Athenian culture in the theatrical arts
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    • Arch of Hadrian
    • Example of Roman patronage to Athens (If the Athenians had dedicated it to Hadrian they would have used his whole name and kissed up more)

    • 2 sides:
    •        1) "This is Athens, the ancient city of Theseus" faces the old Acropolis
    •        2) "This is the city of Hadrian, and not Theseus" faces toward the new city (which Hadrian had renamed Hadrianopolis)

    • Represents both a boundary marker between the old and the new and the contest between local and global claims on Athenian history
    • Hadrian is competing with the city's mythological founder
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    • Stoa of Attalos (rebuilt by Americans in the 1950's), Church of Apostles, and Post-Herulian Wall (Beule) in Ancient Agora
    • All were devastated by the barbarian raids (Herulian 267) that followed the decline of the Roman empire in the 2nd C
    • Stoa was an example of Hellenistic patronage of Athens and the global fight to lay claim to some aspect of its history
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    • Beulé Gate or Post-Herulian Gate
    • Acropolis gate after Heruli raid in 267 AD (who could raid it because of the failure of the Roman Empire to protect it)
    • Made of spoila (existence of Doric stones from another monument in the gate)
    • Shows the Athenian tribute to its ability to bounce back from destruction and pay homage to it
    • Also a sign of the shrinking of the city: Athens couldn't protect as large of a city anymore - wasn't powerful enough
    • Actually excluded the Old Greek Agora from the 'inner city'
    • Named after the French archaeologist who found it in 1852: Ernest Beulé
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    • Panaia Athiniotissa "Our Lady of Athens" Parthenon after 6th century Christian conversion
    • Dedicated to the Virgin Mary
    • The reason the Parthenon survived until now is because everyone converted it and took care of it in their own way

    • Changes:
    •        Reorientation of the entrance from East to West
    •        Linked the two chambers inside
    •        Began services inside (pagan Greeks began outside)
    •        East facade was made to accommodate the altar space

    • Act of politics: rename the most famous building on the Acropolis for Christianity
    • Signifies the respect the Christians had for the history of the Acropolis enough to not destroy it (even the pagan frieze etc. was left and just interpreted as Christian instead)
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    • Painting of Athens by Jacques Carrey in 1674 (artist for the Marquis de Nointel)
    • Drawn from the ground looking up at the Acropolis - amazingly accurate - without him we wouldn't know a bunch of things we do about the original structure of the Parthenon
    • Right before the Acropolis was destroyed in 1687
    • Shows how the enlightened western Europeans (French diplomats front left) drew on Greek culture - especially Athens - for their ideas
    • Ottoman rule clearly present - seen in the Ottomans in the foreground as well as the Parthenon as a mosque in the background
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    • Stuart and Revett's Acropolis, one of on-site drawings from their trip 1751-1754
    • Parthenon after its destruction
    • Small mosque was built inside the ruins to replace the Parthenon-mosque that was destroyed
    • Houses and said small mosque indicate life on the Acropolis contrary to our understanding of it now
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    • Karl Friedrick Schinkel’s Palace Design for King Otto, Site Plan for Acropolis 1834
    • Commissioned by Otto's brother: Maximilian - solved the problem of what to do with the Acropolis and where to put the king
    • Shows how the Acropolis is a sign for political power
    • Palace would have been on the southeast corner
    • Never was fulfilled, to expensive and unrealistic (water supply)
    • Shinkel's rival (Von Klenze) wanted it to be an archaeological zone - won that fight
    • Otto eventually ended up living in Syntagma Square
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MODGREEK 325 Challenge Images Set 1

Modern Greek Challenge Images
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