Human Development Early Adulthood

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Human Development Early Adulthood
2013-04-11 23:08:21
human development

exam 4
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  1. senescence
    the natural physical decline brought about by aging
  2. secondary aging
    changes in physical and cognitive functioning that are due to illness, health habits and other individual differences, but which are not due to increased age itself and are not inevitable
  3. primary aging
    aging that involves universal and irreversible changes that due to genetic programming occur as people get older
  4. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    mandates full access to public establishments such as stores, office buildings, hotels, and theaters
  5. psychosomatic disorders
    medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties
  6. hardiness
    a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness
  7. coping
    the effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress
  8. emotional intelligence
    the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions
  9. creativity
    the combination of responses or ideas in novel ways
  10. social clock
    the culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison with our peers. 
  11. marriage gradient
    The tendency for men to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller, and lower in status, and women to marry men who are slightly older, larger, and higher in status
  12. cohabitation
    couples living together without being married
  13. replacement level
    the number of children that one generation must produce to be able to replenish its numbers
  14. Percentage of people in the US involved in enough exercise to give them good physical health
    less then 10%
  15. The top killers of adults in their 20s and 30s
    • Accidents
    • AIDS
    • Cancer
    • Heart diesease
    • Suicide
  16. Age at which illness and disease overtake accidents as the leading cause of death
  17. Most likely cause of death for African Americans and Hispanic Americans
  18. Percentage of young adults ages 18 to 29 who are obese
  19. Lazarus and Folkman's research on stress
    • Primary Appraisal
    • Secondary Appraisal
  20. K Warner Schaie's stages of cognitive development and the main developmental tasks
    Aquisitive stage: attaining long term goals

    Achieving stage: achieving those goals

    Executive Stage:take a broader perspective than earlier 

    Responsible stage: concerns about personal situation

    Reintegrative stage: focus is on tasks that have personal meaning
  21. Sternberg's proposed theory of intellignce
    Triarchic theory of intelligence- intelligence is made up of three major components; componential, experiential, and contextual
  22. Sources of happiness for young adults
    relationships, new jobs, moving into their own apartment 
  23. Eriksons stage of development
    Intimacy versus isolation stage: the period of post adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others.
  24. STimul-value-role (SVR) theory
    the theory that relationships proceed in a fixed order of three stages: stimulus, value, and role
  25. Types of love
    • Passionate
    • Companionate 
  26. Hatfield and Berschied's research
    labeling theory of passionate love: individuals experience romantic love when two events occur together: intense physiological arousal and situational cues that indicated that "love" is the appropriate label for the feelings they are experiencing 
  27. Sternberg's theory of love
    Intimacy component- encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness

    Passion component: comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance

    Decision/commitment component: initial cognition that one loves another person and the longer-term determination to maintain that love
  28. Adult attachment styles
    Secure attachement

    Avoident attachement 

    Ambivalent attachment
  29. Reasons why young adults choose to have children
    to derive pleasure from watching their children grow, fulfillment from their children's accomplishments, satisfaction from seeing them become successful, and and enjoyment from for gin a close bond with their children.
  30. Vaillant's research
    Career consolidation- a stage that is entered between the ages of 20 and 40 when young adults became centered on their careers
  31. Ginzberg's theory
    fantasy period: lasts until age 11, when career choices are made, and discarded, without regard to skills, abilities or available job opportunities

    Tentative period: adolescence. people begin to think in pragmatic terms about the requirements of various jobs and how their own abilities might fit with them

    Realistic period: early adulthood: when people begin to explore specific career options either through actual experience on the job or through training for a profession and then narrow their choices and make a commitment
  32. Holland's Personality Type theory
    • Realistic
    • Intellectual 
    • Social
    • Conventional 
    • Enterprising
    • Artistic 
  33. Gilligan's three stages of moral development for women
    • 1- Orientation toward individual survival 
    • 2- goodness as self sacrifice
    • 3- morality of nonviolence
  34. Reasons for friendships
    • Proximity
    • Similarity
    • Personal qualities
  35. College attendance
    More women than men attend college. White people attend more
  36. Extrinsic motivation
    drives people to obtain tangible rewards, such as money and prestige
  37. Intrinsic motivation
    work for their own enjoyment, for personal rewards, not just for the financial rewards a job may bring
  38. Communal proffessions
    occupations associated with relationships
  39. post formal thought
    thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms
  40. Autonomy
    having independence and a sense of control over one's life