Card Set Information
Intro Nucleic Acids
Intro, Nucleic Acids, Nucleases, Nucleic Acid Isolation
What describes the transfer of genetic info within a cell?
What are the stages of the central dogma?
DNA -> RNA -> Proteins
What is the term for the process of DNA -> RNA?
What is the term for the process of RNA -> Protein?
Name the Nitrogenous heterocyclic bases
What nitrogenous base has a double ring and includes adenine (A) and guanine (G)?
What nitrogenous base has a single ring and includes cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U)?
What is responsible for the strong negative charge of both nucleotides and nucleic acids?
A phosphate group
When A always pairs with T (or U in RNA) and C always pairs with G, what is this termed?
Complimentary base pairing
What is the term for DNA and a histone complex?
What are the coding parts of a gene called?
What are the noncoding regions of a gene called?
What are extrachromosomal DNA containing nonessential genetic info?
What is the association of denatured DNA to native dsDNA?
Renaturation or annealing
What are the 2 requirements for renaturation or annealing?
Salt concentration must be high enough to overcome electostatic repulsion between negatively charged phosphate groups in 2 strands
Temp must be high enough to disrupt the random, nonspecific intrasrand hydrogen bonds (around 52 degrees celcius)
What are the fragments of DNA that are synthesized discontinuously called?
What are the enzymes are responsible for unwinding the parental double helix?
What enzyme breaks the phosphodiester bond in nucleic acids?
What enzyme cuts only at the end of a nucleid acid, removing a single nucleotide at a time?
What refers to nonspecific cleaving when incubation conditions are not optimal?
What specimen is used to obtain mitochondrial DNA?
Usually hair follicles
What can be used for genetic mapping, disease prediction, disease associations, and human identification?
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP or "snips")
What is seen in some genetic diseases - like fragile X syndrome, Huntington disease, or Huntington chorea?
Trinucleotide repeat expansion
What is the conventional 3 step cycle of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
Sample DNA is denatured by heating 94-96 degrees celcius
Primers are added to the cooled sample to allow primers to anneal
DNA polymerase is added to extend primers and compledte DNA synthesis of target sequence defined by primaeers
What is a double standed DNA binding dye thatmonitors accumulation of PCR products as they are made?
What is the process of the RNA template being converted to a DNA copy (cDNA) by RNA dependent DNA polyermase?
What enzyme sythesizes cDNA by extending primers?
What enzyme seals gaps between adjacent primers?
What enzyme recognizes overlapping sequence of DNA and cuts it?
What is a commonly used method in automated DNA sequencers?
Pyrosequencing or sequencing by synthesis
What is the single gene disorder of Factor V Leiden?
G to A change
Results in substitution of the arginine (R) at position 506 by glutamine (Q); R506Q
What is the most common single gene disorder for cystic fibrosis?
F508del (but about 1300 other mutations)
What clinical condition results in a G (Q) to A (R) change at position 506 - R506Q?
Factor V Leiden
What clinical condition results in the change of F508del?
What clinical condition results is due to expanding copies of the CGG codon in the gene FMR-1 located on the X chromosome; resulting in mental retardation in males?
Fragile X syndrome
What clinical condition is due to CAG expansion at 4p16.3?
What clinical condition is due to a translocation event: t(9:22)(q34:q11)?
Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)