PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 19 - 4

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PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 19 - 4
2013-04-09 20:10:39
PTG 105 Exam Lecture 19

PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 19 - 4
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  1. What are advanced breast cancer symptoms?
    • ulceration
    • peau d'oragnce
  2. Which side of the breast is more commonly affected with breast cancer?
  3. What is the most frequent site of breast cancer?
    upper outer quadrant
  4. What are the two divisions of breast cancer?
    • Noninvasive (carinoma in situ)
    • Invasive
  5. Describe a non-invasive breast cancer
    No performation of the basement membrans
  6. What is the prognosis for Noninvasive breast cancer?
  7. Ductual carcinoma runs a very strong risk of what?
    Developinginto invasive type with time
  8. What is the prognosis for invasive breast carcinoma?
  9. What is the most common type of breast cancer?
    Invasive ductual carcinoma (70-80%)
  10. What is Invasive ductual carcinoma associated with?
    Ductual carcinoma in situ
  11. What type of breast cancer has the worst prognosis?
    Invasive ductual carcinoma
  12. A definative diagnosis for breast cancer requires what?
    A biopsy
  13. Which is more common Invasive lobular or ductual carcinoma?
  14. What is the common position for Invasive lobular carcinoma?
    Muticentric and bilateral (10-20%)
  15. What percent of bresat cancers preseeting as a palpable mass have already spread to the lymph nodes?
  16. Breast cancer spread can only involve the lymph nodes (T/F)?
    • False, it can involve the muscle and skin too
    • Can also metastisize in the lunsg, brain, liver and bone
  17. What mineral is noticable on a mammogram of ductual carcinoma in situ?
  18. Calcifications are diagnostic of what type of cancer?
    Ductual carcinoma in situ
  19. What histological arrangement is associated with Invasive lobular carcinoma?
    Single file arrangement
  20. Is you see a single file arrangement in breast tissue, what disease is suspect?
    Invasive lobular carcinoma
  21. What three featurs do pathologist use to asign a grade to Invasive ductual carcinoma?
    • extent of the tumor
    • mitotic count
    • cell pleomorphism
  22. The extent of tumor formation, cell pleomorphism and mitotic count are all used to determine what?
    The grade of Invasive Ductual carcinoma
  23. What system is used for staging of breast cancer?
  24. What are themost important prognositic factors for breast cancer?
    • size
    • grade
    • histological type
    • ER and PR status
    • expression of Her 2 neu lymph node mets
    • presence of distant disease
  25. size, grade, presence of distant disease, histological type, ER and PR status, expression of Her 2 neu lypn node mets are all used to:
    Make a prognosis for breast cancer
  26. What is paget disease?
    extension of DCIS into the skin of the nipple.
  27. What does pagets disease look like?
    Exzema of the skin
  28. What do 50% of those with paget disease also have?
    underlying invasive carcinoma
  29. Underlying invasive carcinoma is found in what percent of those with Paget disease?
  30. How often should a woman over 40 be screen for Breast cancer?
  31. What type of screening should a woman have for breast cancer if she is over 40?
    Mammogram and Clinical Breast exam
  32. At ages 20-39 women should have what type of breast exam and at what interval?
    Clinical breast exam Approx. every three years
  33. Women 20 and over whould all have what type of breast screening?
    Breast self-exam
  34. Breast self exam should always be done?
    False, it is acceptable not to
  35. What can be accomplished my a mammogram?
    • Early detection
    • differntiation between benign and maligant
  36. How many views are taken for a mammogram?
  37. What is the follow up rate mammograms?
  38. If a suspicious lesion is seen in a mammogram, what is the next step?
  39. What reasons might breast cancer not be detected  on a mammogram?
    • cancer is small
    • in a difficult to image area of the breast
    • cacner is obscured by shadows
  40. What are areas of the breast that are not easy to image using a mammogram?
    Axilla, underarm regions
  41. What is a "Triple Test"
    • 1.) Clinical Breast exam
    • 2.) Image test
    • 3.) Non-surgical biopsy
  42. What types of non-surgical biopsy are available:
    FNA and core biopsy
  43. What signs of Malignancy can be seen in FNA?
    • increased cellularity
    • cellular neoplasm
    • pleomorphism
    • loss of cohesion
    • atypical mitosis
  44. What are the five means of treating breast cancer?
    • Lumpectoy
    • Masectomy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation
    • Hormonal therapy
  45. What is gynecomastia?
    Enlagement of the male breast
  46. What is the term for enlargement of the male breast?
  47. What is the etiology of Gynecomatia?
    • Excess estrogen in males
    • Alcohol
    • Anabolic steroids
    • marijuana
    • heroin
    • cirrhosis
    • estrogen secreting tumors
    • Klinefelter syndrome
  48. What is the treatment for Gyecomastia?
    • Supportive reassurance
    • Rarely surgical
  49. Liver disease causes Gynecomastia in what way?
    It reduced estrogen metabolism and lead to breast enlargement
  50. What gene is strongly associated with male breast cancer
    BRCA 2
  51. At what rate does cancer invade surrounding tissues in males?
    Much faster due to small breast size
  52. Why does male breast cancer invade surrounding tssues at a faster rate?
    smaller breasts
  53. What is the prognosis for male breast cancer?
    Similar in men as in women when matched for stage