Pansystemic Disease

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Pansystemic Disease
2013-04-09 20:27:15
Animal Diseases Five

Animal Diseases
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  1. What are the different pansystemic diseases?
    • FIP
    • toxoplasmosis
    • Lyme disease
  2. What does FIP stand for?
    feline infectious peritonitis
  3. What type of virus is FIP?
    corona virus
  4. What are the two types of FIP?
    effusive or non-effusive
  5. Can a cat be a carrier of FIP and not appear sick?
  6. How is FIP transmitted?
    • feces
    • fomites
    • possible inhalation
    • more of a problem in catteries and multiple cat households
  7. What is the effusive form of FIP?
    wet form, vasculitis
  8. What are the clinical signs of effusive FIP?
    • ascites, pleural effusion
    • anorexia, depress
    • weight loss
    • +/- fever
  9. What can mutate to FIP?
    feline enteric coronavirus
  10. What is non-effusive FIP?
    dry form
  11. What are the clinical signs of non-effusive FIP?
    • weight loss
    • fever
    • signs reflect body system affected - organ damage (eyes, brain, omentum, kidneys, liver)
  12. How do we diagnose FIP?
    • hyperglobulinemia
    • cytology of abdominal and pleural fluids - high protein content
    • FIP titers
  13. Can the FIP titers distinguish between the wet and dry form of FIP?
  14. If cats with signs suggestive of FIP, _____ support a diagnosis of FIP.
    high titers
  15. How do we treat FIP?
    • supportive therapy
    • abdominocentesis or thoracocentesis to make cat more comfortable
    • immunotherapy (ImmunoRegulin)
    • prednisone
  16. Does treatment for FIP usually work?
    no, the disease is almost always fatal
  17. How do we prevent FIP?
    intranasal vaccine
  18. Who should we give the FIP vaccine to?
    at risk cats only
  19. What does the FIP vaccine do?
    induces serum antibody titers
  20. What is the organism that causes toxoplasmosis?
    Toxoplasma gondii
  21. What kind of parasite is Toxoplasma gondii?
    intracellular coccidian parasite
  22. What is the definitive host for toxoplasma?
  23. Who can be intermediate hosts for toxoplasma?
    humans and other warm-blooded animals
  24. How is toxoplasmosis transmitted?
    • ingestion of contaminated meat (tissue cysts) from intermediate host (rodent)
    • fecal-oral route - ingestion of sporulated oocysts
    • transplacental
    • tissue cysts can reactivate during host illness
  25. What is the life cycle of toxoplasma?
    • ingestion of sporulated oocyst
    • tachyzoites form, invades tissue of body
    • oocysts are shed in feces for 1-2 weeks - cat is usually not sick during this time
    • sporulate in the environment
  26. What are the clinical signs of toxoplasmosis?
    • signs vary with tissue affected
    • diarrhea
    • neurological
    • respiratory
    • ocular
    • myositis
    • liver
    • pancreatitis
  27. Which animals are the clinical signs most commonly seen in for toxoplasmosis?
    • young animals
    • immunosuppressed animals
    • those infected with other pathogens
  28. How do we diagnose toxoplasmosis?
    • paired titers - fourfold increase
    • clinical signs
    • exclusion of other diseases
    • positive response to treatment
    • ELISA testing on CSF, aqueous humor
    • fecal - shedding unpredictable
    • histopathological exam of tissue
  29. How do we treat toxoplasmosis?
    • clindamycin (antirobe drug of choice)
    • no drug clears all toxoplasma gondii from the body
  30. Is toxoplasmosis zoonotic?
  31. How is toxoplasmosis transmitted to humans?
    • usually transmitted by undercooked meat and contaminated water (50% of human cases)
    • possible exposure to sporulated oocysts in the litter box or while gardening
  32. Do humans often get toxoplasmosis from handling cats directly?
  33. Should immunosuppressed people expose themselves to cats infected with toxoplasmosis?
  34. Why should we clean litter boxes daily?
    so oocysts do not sporulate
  35. How long can sporulated oocysts live in a harsh environment?
    for 18 months
  36. How should we protect ourselves from toxoplasmosis when cleaning a litter box or when gardening?
    wear gloves
  37. How can toxoplasmosis affect a pregnant woman?
    congenital infection in first or second trimester can lead to serious birth defects
  38. What kind of precautions should pregnant woman take to protect themselves from toxoplasmosis?
    • avoid feeding raw meat to cats
    • keep cat indoors
    • have someone else clean litter box
    • avoid use of immunosuppressive drugs in positive cats
    • antibody titers before pregnancy
    • avoid acquiring new cat during pregnancy
    • wash hands thoroughly and wear gloves when gardening
    • cook meat properly
  39. What is the organism that causes lyme disease?
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  40. How is lyme disease transmitted?
    transmitted to host animal or human through tick bite
  41. How long does the tick need to be attached to the animal before it can cause lyme disease?
    48 hours
  42. How is lyme disease zoonotic?
    same tick that transmits to dogs can transmit to hunans
  43. What are the clinical signs of lyme disease?
    • many organs can be affected
    • lameness - acute or chronic
    • polyarthritis
    • fever
    • anorexia
    • lethargy
    • lymphadenopathy
    • myocardial abnormalities
    • rash around tick bite
    • nephritis - especially in Labs
  44. How do we diagnose Lyme disease?
    • radiographs - little or no signs of DJD
    • titers useful in unvaccinated dogs
    • ELISA testing
    • animals with high titers and no clinical signs should be retested in one month
  45. When do we treat lyme disease?
    if the patient shows clinical signs and a positive titer
  46. How do we treat lyme disease?
    • antibiotics for 30 days - may not clear organism - could relapse
    • continue treatment for 2 weeks past resolution of clinical signs
    • use either doxycycline, cephalexin, or tetracycline
    • recheck titers in one month
    • NSAIDs for pain
  47. How do we prevent lyme disease?
    • commercial vaccines available
    • vaccine recommended in endemic areas
    • tick control