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What are the different pansystemic diseases?
- Lyme disease
What does FIP stand for?
feline infectious peritonitis
What type of virus is FIP?
What are the two types of FIP?
effusive or non-effusive
Can a cat be a carrier of FIP and not appear sick?
How is FIP transmitted?
- possible inhalation
- more of a problem in catteries and multiple cat households
What is the effusive form of FIP?
wet form, vasculitis
What are the clinical signs of effusive FIP?
- ascites, pleural effusion
- anorexia, depress
- weight loss
- +/- fever
What can mutate to FIP?
feline enteric coronavirus
What is non-effusive FIP?
What are the clinical signs of non-effusive FIP?
- weight loss
- signs reflect body system affected - organ damage (eyes, brain, omentum, kidneys, liver)
How do we diagnose FIP?
- cytology of abdominal and pleural fluids - high protein content
- FIP titers
Can the FIP titers distinguish between the wet and dry form of FIP?
If cats with signs suggestive of FIP, _____ support a diagnosis of FIP.
How do we treat FIP?
- supportive therapy
- abdominocentesis or thoracocentesis to make cat more comfortable
- immunotherapy (ImmunoRegulin)
Does treatment for FIP usually work?
no, the disease is almost always fatal
How do we prevent FIP?
Who should we give the FIP vaccine to?
at risk cats only
What does the FIP vaccine do?
induces serum antibody titers
What is the organism that causes toxoplasmosis?
What kind of parasite is Toxoplasma gondii?
intracellular coccidian parasite
What is the definitive host for toxoplasma?
Who can be intermediate hosts for toxoplasma?
humans and other warm-blooded animals
How is toxoplasmosis transmitted?
- ingestion of contaminated meat (tissue cysts) from intermediate host (rodent)
- fecal-oral route - ingestion of sporulated oocysts
- tissue cysts can reactivate during host illness
What is the life cycle of toxoplasma?
- ingestion of sporulated oocyst
- tachyzoites form, invades tissue of body
- oocysts are shed in feces for 1-2 weeks - cat is usually not sick during this time
- sporulate in the environment
What are the clinical signs of toxoplasmosis?
- signs vary with tissue affected
Which animals are the clinical signs most commonly seen in for toxoplasmosis?
- young animals
- immunosuppressed animals
- those infected with other pathogens
How do we diagnose toxoplasmosis?
- paired titers - fourfold increase
- clinical signs
- exclusion of other diseases
- positive response to treatment
- ELISA testing on CSF, aqueous humor
- fecal - shedding unpredictable
- histopathological exam of tissue
How do we treat toxoplasmosis?
- clindamycin (antirobe drug of choice)
- no drug clears all toxoplasma gondii from the body
Is toxoplasmosis zoonotic?
How is toxoplasmosis transmitted to humans?
- usually transmitted by undercooked meat and contaminated water (50% of human cases)
- possible exposure to sporulated oocysts in the litter box or while gardening
Do humans often get toxoplasmosis from handling cats directly?
Should immunosuppressed people expose themselves to cats infected with toxoplasmosis?
Why should we clean litter boxes daily?
so oocysts do not sporulate
How long can sporulated oocysts live in a harsh environment?
for 18 months
How should we protect ourselves from toxoplasmosis when cleaning a litter box or when gardening?
How can toxoplasmosis affect a pregnant woman?
congenital infection in first or second trimester can lead to serious birth defects
What kind of precautions should pregnant woman take to protect themselves from toxoplasmosis?
- avoid feeding raw meat to cats
- keep cat indoors
- have someone else clean litter box
- avoid use of immunosuppressive drugs in positive cats
- antibody titers before pregnancy
- avoid acquiring new cat during pregnancy
- wash hands thoroughly and wear gloves when gardening
- cook meat properly
What is the organism that causes lyme disease?
How is lyme disease transmitted?
transmitted to host animal or human through tick bite
How long does the tick need to be attached to the animal before it can cause lyme disease?
How is lyme disease zoonotic?
same tick that transmits to dogs can transmit to hunans
What are the clinical signs of lyme disease?
- many organs can be affected
- lameness - acute or chronic
- myocardial abnormalities
- rash around tick bite
- nephritis - especially in Labs
How do we diagnose Lyme disease?
- radiographs - little or no signs of DJD
- titers useful in unvaccinated dogs
- ELISA testing
- animals with high titers and no clinical signs should be retested in one month
When do we treat lyme disease?
if the patient shows clinical signs and a positive titer
How do we treat lyme disease?
- antibiotics for 30 days - may not clear organism - could relapse
- continue treatment for 2 weeks past resolution of clinical signs
- use either doxycycline, cephalexin, or tetracycline
- recheck titers in one month
- NSAIDs for pain
How do we prevent lyme disease?
- commercial vaccines available
- vaccine recommended in endemic areas
- tick control