Central nervous system
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Name the 4 regions of the brain and the subdivisions of each.
Cerebrum(basal nuclei, white matter and cerebral cortex), Cerebellum, Brain stem(midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata), and Diencephalon(thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalmus)
What is the blood brain barrier?
Created by tightly connected endothelial cells of CNS, prevent passage of materials from blood to brain or spinal chord
Describe the three meninges that surround the CNS.
Dura mater(dense, adheres directly to the periosteum of the interior surface of cranial bones),
archonoid mater(made of collagen and elastic fibers, contains subdural space filled with interstitial fluid),
and Pia mater(innermost membrane, adheres titghtly to the surface of the brain and spinal chord).
List the ventricles of the brain and know their
Lateral ventricles, third ventricles, and fourth ventricles
What are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
provides mechanical protection, chemical protection and circulation of nutrients to the brain and spinal cord.
Describe the circulation of CSF
Circulates nutrients to brain and spinal chord, also circulates wastes between blood and nervous tissue
Know the location and functions of the 3 brain
- Midbrain- Reflex Centers
- -superior colliculi-governs movements
- -inferior colliculi-auditory pathway, relay impulses, startle reflex
- Extends from pons to diencephalon.
Pons- A bridge, connect to different parts of brain with axons, has white matter. Inferior to midbrain and anterior to cerebellum.
Medulla Oblongata- Primary autonomic control of brain and primary respiratory center. Forms inferior part of brainstem, inferior to pons and extends to foramen magnum.
Describe the structure and function of the
Structure:highly folded surface that greatly increases the surface area of its outer gray matter cortex allowing for a greater # of neurons
Function: Primary for muscle contractions. Regulates posture and balance coordinates movement and helps regulate posture and balance
List the 3 parts of the Diencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalmus
What are the functions of the Thalamus, Epithalamus and Hypothalamus
Thalamus- relays and processes sensory impulses to the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex(cerebrum).
Epithalamus- regulates and makes hormones
Hypothalamus- Control Pituitary gland, responsible for production of hormones, control of body temperatures, sleep-wake cycles and partial control of internal organs.
Describe the structure of the Cerebrum
(Cerebral Hemispheres) 2 hemispheres of forebrain
(Cerebral Cortex-surface of cerebral hemispheres consist of grey matter(6 layers)
Basal Nuclei-paired clusters of gray matter deep in each cerebral hemisphere
WhiteMatter-bundles of myelinated or unmeylinated axons in brain and spinal chord
What are the functions of the Cerebral Peduncles and the Corpora Quadrigemina in the midbrain?
Cerebral Peduncles-conduct impulses fro motor areas in the cerebral cortex to the medulla, pons and spinal cord.
Corpora Quadrigemina-reflex centers for certain visual activities.
What are the functions of thalamus, hypothalamus and the epithalamus?
Thalamus-relays almost all sensory input to the cerebral cortex, contributes to motor functions by transmitting info from cerebellum.
hypothylamus- controls body temp and regulates eating and drinking behavior
epithalamus- regulates hormones
What is a gyri?
cortical region rolls and folds upon itself
What is a longitudinal fissure?
separates the cerebrum into right and left halves
What is a corpus callosum?
great commissure of the brain between the cerebral hemisperes
What are the lobes of the cerebrum?
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and insula
What are the fiber tracts?
Association-conduct impulses between gyri and same hemisphere
Projection-conduct impulses from cerebrum to lower parts of CNS
commisural-conduct impulses from gyri in one hemisphere
What are the roles of the Limbic system and reticular formation?
Limbic system-Controls emotions/most involuntary behavior, encircles upper brain system and corpus callosum
Reticular formation-Filter out sensory info(repetitiveness) headed toward cerebrum and thalamus.
helps arouse the body from sleep and maintain consciousness. Motor functions helps regulate posture and muscle tone.
What is a sulci?
a groove or depression between parts, especially between the convulsions of the brain
What effect would lesions have if located on functional areas of the brain in Sensory Areas?
Malfunctions of all senses, being able to recognize pain
Primary somatosensory-malfunction of touch, pain and recognition of localization of a sensation
Primary visual-malfunction of eyesight(crossover)
Primary auditory-malfunction of hearing(crossover)
primary gustatory-inability to taste(crossover)
primary olfactory-inability to smell(crossover)
What effect would lesions have if located on functional areas of the brain in motor areas?
Primary motor-inability to contract muscles, movement(crossover)
Brocha's area-lack of speech affected, and breathing
What effect would lesions have if located on functional areas of the brain in association areas?
Somatosensory association-inability to detect orientations of objects
Visual association-inability to recognize what is being seen
auditory association-inability recognize sounds
Wernicke's area-inability to understand
Common integrative-inability to form thoughts
Prefrontal cortex-malfunction of personALITY, intellect, recalling info, foresight
premoter area-malfunction of motor skills, contractions
frontal eye field area-malfunction of eye movement
What is EEG?
Electroencyphilogram-recording of electricity in the brain/brainwaves
What are the 4 types of brainwaves and their mental state?
Beta-Concentration, actively thinking and problem solving
Alpha-Normal resting adults
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