Card Set Information
Animal Diseases Five
What are the different female reproductive diseases?
What is puppy vaginitis?
inflammation of the vagina
How do puppies get vaginitis?
secondary infection from overgrowth of resident flora
What are the clinical signs of puppy vaginitis?
How do we treat puppy vaginitis?
usually resolves after first estrus or spaying
What is pyometra?
pus in the uterus
Which female dogs get pyometra?
How do dogs get pyometra?
chronic exposure to progesterone
What causes pyometra?
hyperplasia and hypertrophy of endometrial glands of the uterus
increased accumulation of secretions in the uterus
decreased myometrial contractions
secondary bacterial infection
What are the common organisms that cause pyometra?
How can estrogen compounds affect a female dog?
can cause pyometra, endometritis 1 - 10 weeks after administration
Can pyometra occur in cats?
yes, but its not common
What the two types of pyometra?
What is open pyometra?
cervix open - discharge
What is closed pyometra?
What are the clinical signs of pyometra?
may have purulent vulvar discharge
How do we diagnose pyometra?
neutrophilia, toxic left shift
radiographs - dense tubular structures, larger than small intestinal loops
What can we see on an ultrasound when there is pyometra?
can determine uterine size
can see intraluminal fluid
can see stump pyometras
How do we treat pyometra?
ovariohysterectomy is the treatment of choice
medical management only if a valuable breeding animal
open cervix pyometra ill
not critically ill
prostaglandin F2 alpha injections
may have concurrent urinary tract infections
What is dystocia?
difficulty giving birth
What maternal causes of dystocia?
narrow pelvic canal (fracture)
What are some fetal causes of dystocia?
When it is a dystocia?
in labor for more than 4 hours without delivery
more than 1 (or 2) hours between deliveries
green vaginal discharge develops during parturition
How do we diagnose dystocia?
normal variation in parturition can make diagnosis difficult
dog is systemically ill
digital rectal or vaginal exam
What will we see on a digital rectal or vaginal exam that can determine dystocia?
no pup in birth canal
pup lodged in canal
malposition of the fetus
What will we see on a radiograph that can help diagnose dystocia?
dead pups in uterus - gas in uterus, skeletal collapse
large number of pups in a fatigued mother dog
very large pups
What will we see on an ultrasound that will help diagnose dystocia?
How do we treat dystocia?
manipulation of pup in birth canal
oxytocin to cause uterine contractions
may spay at time of Caesarian section
What is a pseudopregnancy?
false pregnancy, pseudocyesis
When does pseudopregnancy occur?
non-pregnant dog at end of estrus
What can happen during pseudopregnancy?
Is pseudopregnancy associated with a reproductive tract disease?
How do we diagnose pseudopregnancy?
estrus 2 months prior
may develop mastitis
How do we treat pseudopregnancy?
spontaneous remission within 2 - 3 weeks of onset
Ovaban is the only approved therapy
short term tranquilization for individuals that become aggressive
phenothiazines are contraindicated because they can exacerbate the clinical signs
What is mastitis?
inflammation of the mammary glands
When does mastitis happen?
Can mastitis occur with pseudopregnancy?
What usually causes mastitis?
usually an ascending bacterial infection - Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus
What are the clinical signs of mastitis?
mammary discomfort, redness
reluctance to nurse
What is the treatment for mastitis?
cool or warm compresses
do not let neonates suckle severely infected glands
may have to hand-rear the pups
What are some other names for eclampsia?
What is hypocalcemia?
inadequate stores of usable calcium
Can hypocalcemia be life-threatening?
What dogs is elcampsia most common in?
small breeds with large litters
When do we usually see eclampsia?
usually seen at peak lactation - 1 to 3 weeks post-partum
What is eclampsia?
mother dog's body is unable to draw enough calcium from her bones and she is not able to ingest enough oral calcium
Is calcium supplementation during pregnancy necessary to prevent eclampsia?
What are the clinical signs of eclampsia?
tremors, muscle fasciculation (twitching)
How do we treat eclampsia that have mild clinical signs?
calcium gluconate IM or SQ
oral calcium gluconate with vitamin D
puppies may continue to nurse
How do we treat eclampsia that have severe clinical signs?
calcium gluconate IV, auscult heart
remove pups for 24 hours
daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation
What does calcium gluconate treat?
Are tumors of ovaries and uterus are uncommon in dogs and cats?
Where are tumors of the female reproductive tract common?
vaginal and vulvar tumors are the most common tumors of the canine female genital tract
What are 50% of all tumors in female dogs?
What types of animals get mammary tumors?
older dogs and cats
What is linked to the development of mammary tumors?
estrogen and progesterone
What is the risk of dogs getting mammary tumors if they are spayed before their first heat?
What is the risk of a dog getting mammary tumors if they are spayed after their first heat?
What is the risk of a dog getting mammary tumors if they are spayed after 2 or more heats?
What percent of mammary tumors are benign in dogs? Cats?
: 10 - 20%
What are the clinical signs of mammary tumors ?
palpable firm nodule in the mammary gland or chain
single or multiple nodules
surrounding tissue may be involved
may have skin ulceration
cats - dyspnic from lung metastases
How do we diagnose mammary tumors?
definitive diagnosis - biopsy - by wedge or complete excision
How do we treat mammary tumors?
cats - radical mastectomy due to aggressiveness of tumors
may also spay
chemotherapy not proven to be very effective
antiestrogen treatment - some tumors are hormone sensitive and some are not - use tamoxifen (Novadex)
What are some male reproductive diseases?
benign prostatic hyperplasia
Where and what is the prostate?
caudal to the bladder
encircles the proximal urethra at the neck of the bladder
produces fluid that transports sperm during ejaculation
increases in size as the dog ages
What happens to a dogs prostate when they are neutered before maturity?
have normal prostate growth inhibited
What happens to the prostate if neutered as adults?
the prostate undergoes involution (shrinks)
_____ of intact male dogs will have hyperplasia?
What are the clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
may have urethral discharge
may have hematuria
palpation - enlarged, nonpainful
How do we diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia?
positive response to neutering
What will we see on abdominal radiographs with benign prostatic hyperplasia?
dorsal displacement of colon
cranial displacement of bladder
What is the definitive diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
How do we treat benign prostatic hyperplasia?
neutering - 70% decrease in size within 7 - 14 days
if neutering is not feasible
: estrogen therapy - causes prostate atrophy and bone marrow suppression
What is prostatitis?
bacterial infection of the prostate
What may develop with prostatitis?
What bacteria can cause prostatitis?
What are the clinical signs of prostatitis?
affects sexually mature dogs
stiff gait in rear limbs
caudal abdominal pain
dripping fluid from prepuce
How do we diagnose prostatitis?
urinalysis - WBCs, bacteria, urine culture and sensitivity
How do we treat prostatitis?
antibiotics - long term
base antibiotics choice on culture and sensitivity
What are the different types of testicular neoplasia?
sertoli cell tumors
interstitial cell tumors
What can sertoli cell tumors and seminomas do?
may produce estrogen - feminizing effects
_____ of all tumors in dogs are testicular tumors.
5 - 15%
Which dogs are at greatest risk for testicular neoplasia?
What are the clinical signs of testicular neoplasia?
testicular enlargement, nodules
What kind of feminization happens with testicular neoplasia?
bilateral symmetrical alopecia
hyperpigmentation of inguinal area
gynecomastia - excessive mammary development in males
How do we treat testicular neoplasia?
exploratory laparotomy to find retained testicles
What is paraphimosis?
penis protrudes from the preputial sheath
cannot be replaced to its normal position
What are the different types of paraphimosis?
What are the clinical signs of paraphimosis?
depend on duration
penis - congested, discolored
excess licking furthers trauma
look for hair ring
can cause severe trauma and necrosis of exposed penis
How do we treat paraphimosis?
replace penis into prepuce
lubricants, hyperosmolar solutions, heat or cold
if cannot get replaced within a few hours, place urethral catheter
temporary or permanent surgical enlargement of preputial opening