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What are the different female reproductive diseases?
- puppy vaginitis
What is puppy vaginitis?
inflammation of the vagina
How do puppies get vaginitis?
secondary infection from overgrowth of resident flora
What are the clinical signs of puppy vaginitis?
How do we treat puppy vaginitis?
- systemic antibiotics
- usually resolves after first estrus or spaying
What is pyometra?
pus in the uterus
Which female dogs get pyometra?
How do dogs get pyometra?
chronic exposure to progesterone
What causes pyometra?
- hyperplasia and hypertrophy of endometrial glands of the uterus
- increased accumulation of secretions in the uterus
- decreased myometrial contractions
- secondary bacterial infection
What are the common organisms that cause pyometra?
- Escherichia coli
- Staphylococcus spp
- Streptococcus spp
How can estrogen compounds affect a female dog?
can cause pyometra, endometritis 1 - 10 weeks after administration
Can pyometra occur in cats?
yes, but its not common
What the two types of pyometra?
- open pyometra
- closed pyometra
What is open pyometra?
cervix open - discharge
What is closed pyometra?
What are the clinical signs of pyometra?
- may have purulent vulvar discharge
- abdominal enlargement
- systemic illness
How do we diagnose pyometra?
- clinical signs
- vulvar discharge
- neutrophilia, toxic left shift
- radiographs - dense tubular structures, larger than small intestinal loops
What can we see on an ultrasound when there is pyometra?
- can determine uterine size
- can see intraluminal fluid
- can see stump pyometras
How do we treat pyometra?
- ovariohysterectomy is the treatment of choice
- medical management only if a valuable breeding animal
- open cervix pyometra ill
- not critically ill
- prostaglandin F2 alpha injections
- may have concurrent urinary tract infections
What is dystocia?
difficulty giving birth
What maternal causes of dystocia?
- uterine inertia
- narrow pelvic canal (fracture)
- psychological disturbances
- uterine torsion
What are some fetal causes of dystocia?
- large fetus
- transverse positioning
- dead fetus
When it is a dystocia?
- in labor for more than 4 hours without delivery
- more than 1 (or 2) hours between deliveries
- green vaginal discharge develops during parturition
How do we diagnose dystocia?
- normal variation in parturition can make diagnosis difficult
- physical exam
- dog is systemically ill
- digital rectal or vaginal exam
What will we see on a digital rectal or vaginal exam that can determine dystocia?
- no pup in birth canal
- pup lodged in canal
- malposition of the fetus
What will we see on a radiograph that can help diagnose dystocia?
- dead pups in uterus - gas in uterus, skeletal collapse
- large number of pups in a fatigued mother dog
- very large pups
What will we see on an ultrasound that will help diagnose dystocia?
How do we treat dystocia?
- manipulation of pup in birth canal
- oxytocin to cause uterine contractions
- Caesarian section
- may spay at time of Caesarian section
What is a pseudopregnancy?
false pregnancy, pseudocyesis
When does pseudopregnancy occur?
non-pregnant dog at end of estrus
What can happen during pseudopregnancy?
- mammary development
- whelping behavior
- nursing behavior
- mothering behavior
Is pseudopregnancy associated with a reproductive tract disease?
How do we diagnose pseudopregnancy?
- estrus 2 months prior
- clinical signs
- may develop mastitis
How do we treat pseudopregnancy?
- spontaneous remission within 2 - 3 weeks of onset
- Ovaban is the only approved therapy
- short term tranquilization for individuals that become aggressive
- diazepam recommended
- phenothiazines are contraindicated because they can exacerbate the clinical signs
What is mastitis?
inflammation of the mammary glands
When does mastitis happen?
Can mastitis occur with pseudopregnancy?
What usually causes mastitis?
usually an ascending bacterial infection - Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus
What are the clinical signs of mastitis?
- mammary discomfort, redness
- discolored milk
- reluctance to nurse
- abscessed glands
What is the treatment for mastitis?
- cool or warm compresses
- do not let neonates suckle severely infected glands
- may have to hand-rear the pups
- supportive therapy
What are some other names for eclampsia?
- puerperal hypocalcemia
What is hypocalcemia?
inadequate stores of usable calcium
Can hypocalcemia be life-threatening?
What dogs is elcampsia most common in?
small breeds with large litters
When do we usually see eclampsia?
usually seen at peak lactation - 1 to 3 weeks post-partum
What is eclampsia?
mother dog's body is unable to draw enough calcium from her bones and she is not able to ingest enough oral calcium
Is calcium supplementation during pregnancy necessary to prevent eclampsia?
What are the clinical signs of eclampsia?
- neurological changes
- tremors, muscle fasciculation (twitching)
How do we treat eclampsia that have mild clinical signs?
- calcium gluconate IM or SQ
- oral calcium gluconate with vitamin D
- puppies may continue to nurse
How do we treat eclampsia that have severe clinical signs?
- calcium gluconate IV, auscult heart
- remove pups for 24 hours
- daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation
What does calcium gluconate treat?
Are tumors of ovaries and uterus are uncommon in dogs and cats?
Where are tumors of the female reproductive tract common?
vaginal and vulvar tumors are the most common tumors of the canine female genital tract
What are 50% of all tumors in female dogs?
What types of animals get mammary tumors?
older dogs and cats
What is linked to the development of mammary tumors?
estrogen and progesterone
What is the risk of dogs getting mammary tumors if they are spayed before their first heat?
What is the risk of a dog getting mammary tumors if they are spayed after their first heat?
What is the risk of a dog getting mammary tumors if they are spayed after 2 or more heats?
What percent of mammary tumors are benign in dogs? Cats?
What are the clinical signs of mammary tumors ?
- palpable firm nodule in the mammary gland or chain
- single or multiple nodules
- surrounding tissue may be involved
- may have skin ulceration
- cats - dyspnic from lung metastases
How do we diagnose mammary tumors?
- clinical signs
- definitive diagnosis - biopsy - by wedge or complete excision
How do we treat mammary tumors?
- surgical excision
- cats - radical mastectomy due to aggressiveness of tumors
- may also spay
- chemotherapy not proven to be very effective
- antiestrogen treatment - some tumors are hormone sensitive and some are not - use tamoxifen (Novadex)
What are some male reproductive diseases?
- benign prostatic hyperplasia
- prostatic neoplasia
- testicular neoplasia
Where and what is the prostate?
- caudal to the bladder
- encircles the proximal urethra at the neck of the bladder
- produces fluid that transports sperm during ejaculation
- increases in size as the dog ages
What happens to a dogs prostate when they are neutered before maturity?
have normal prostate growth inhibited
What happens to the prostate if neutered as adults?
the prostate undergoes involution (shrinks)
_____ of intact male dogs will have hyperplasia?
What are the clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
- may have urethral discharge
- may have hematuria
- palpation - enlarged, nonpainful
How do we diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia?
- abdominal radiographs
- positive response to neutering
What will we see on abdominal radiographs with benign prostatic hyperplasia?
- dorsal displacement of colon
- cranial displacement of bladder
What is the definitive diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
How do we treat benign prostatic hyperplasia?
- neutering - 70% decrease in size within 7 - 14 days
- if neutering is not feasible: estrogen therapy - causes prostate atrophy and bone marrow suppression
What is prostatitis?
bacterial infection of the prostate
What may develop with prostatitis?
What bacteria can cause prostatitis?
- Escherichia coli
What are the clinical signs of prostatitis?
- affects sexually mature dogs
- stiff gait in rear limbs
- caudal abdominal pain
- dripping fluid from prepuce
How do we diagnose prostatitis?
- urinalysis - WBCs, bacteria, urine culture and sensitivity
How do we treat prostatitis?
- antibiotics - long term
- base antibiotics choice on culture and sensitivity
What are the different types of testicular neoplasia?
- sertoli cell tumors
- interstitial cell tumors
What can sertoli cell tumors and seminomas do?
may produce estrogen - feminizing effects
_____ of all tumors in dogs are testicular tumors.
5 - 15%
Which dogs are at greatest risk for testicular neoplasia?
What are the clinical signs of testicular neoplasia?
- testicular enlargement, nodules
What kind of feminization happens with testicular neoplasia?
- bilateral symmetrical alopecia
- hyperpigmentation of inguinal area
- gynecomastia - excessive mammary development in males
- nonregenerative anemia
How do we treat testicular neoplasia?
- exploratory laparotomy to find retained testicles
What is paraphimosis?
- penis protrudes from the preputial sheath
- cannot be replaced to its normal position
What are the different types of paraphimosis?
What are the clinical signs of paraphimosis?
- depend on duration
- penis - congested, discolored
- excess licking furthers trauma
- look for hair ring
- can cause severe trauma and necrosis of exposed penis
How do we treat paraphimosis?
- replace penis into prepuce
- lubricants, hyperosmolar solutions, heat or cold
- if cannot get replaced within a few hours, place urethral catheter
- temporary or permanent surgical enlargement of preputial opening
- penile amputation