PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 20 - 4

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PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 20 - 4
2013-04-09 22:58:52
PTG 105 Exam Lecture 20

PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 20 - 4
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  1. What is Exophthalmos?
    protrusion of the eyes
  2. What is a term for protrusion of the eyes?
  3. What is pretibial myxedema?
    Swollen feet
  4. What is the treatment for Grave's disease?
    • Drugs that supress thyroid function
    • Surgical removal
    • Radioactive iodine
  5. What disease can be treated by radioactive iodine, drugs that supress the thyroid and surgery?
    Grave's disease
  6. What is the most common thyroid disease?
    Non-toxic goiter
  7. How common is non-toxic goiter?
    Most common thyroid disease
  8. What is non-toxic goiter?
    General enlargement of the thyroid gland with normal to low function
  9. What disease is described as general enlargement of the thyroid gland with normal to low function?
    Non-toxic goiter
  10. What are causes of non-toxic goiter:
    • iodine deficiency
    • Idiopathic
    • Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  11. iodine deficiency
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis
    can both cause what disease?
    non-toxic goiter
  12. What pathological changes occur with non-toxic goiter?
    • multinodular goiter
    • enlarged follicles that are filled with colloid
  13. What disease is characterized by Multinodular goiter and distended follicles filled with colloid?
    Nontoxic goiter
  14. What type of amlignant tumor is most common in the thyroid?
    Papillary carcinoma (75%)
  15. What type of Maligannt tumor is second most common in the thyroid?
    Follicular carcinoma (10-25%)
  16. What is the least common malignant carcinoma of the thyroid?
    Medullary carcinoma (5%)
  17. What type of benign tumor exist in the thyroid?
  18. Describe the features of a benign adenoma in the thyroid:
    • Solitary node
    • encapsulated
    • sometimes functional
  19. What type of neoplasm is indicated by a solitary nodule that is encapsulated and in the thyroid?
    Adenoma (benign)
  20. What group is most susceptable to Papillary carcinoma?
    3rd to 5th decade, female
  21. What percent of Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is females in their 3rd and 4th decade?
  22. What is the symptom for Papillary carcinoma?
    Painless mass on neck
  23. 70% of patients with Papillary Carcinoma of the thyroid have what configuration?
    psammoma bodies
  24. psammoma bodies indicate what disease?
    Papillary Carcinoma
  25. The thyroid cells of a person with Papillary carcinoma have what characteristics?
    • intranuclear inclusion
    • nuclear grooves
  26. Intranuclear inclusions and nuclear groove in the cells of the thyroid indicate what disease?
    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
  27. What is the prognosis for Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid?
    excellent, 90% for 20 year survival rate
  28. What disease is characterized by "little orphan annie eyes" appearance?
    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
  29. What age group is most susceptible to follicular carcinoma of the thyroid?
    5th and 6th decade
  30. What ratio of men to women get follicular carcinoma of the thyroid?
    M:F 1:3
  31. What percent of Folliclar carcinoma sufferers are in their 5th or 6th decade?
  32. What does follicular carcinoma of the thyroid look like histologically?
    Encapsulated and composed of follicular structures
  33. What disease is indicated by a histological finding of encapsulated neoplasm composed of follicular structures in the thyroid?
    Follicular Carcinoma of the thyroid
  34. Follicular carcinoma can spread by what means?
  35. Is there lymphatic involvement in Follicular carcinoma?
  36. What does the parathyroid gland do?
    Regulates Ca and phosphorus
  37. What gland regulates calcium and phosphorus?
  38. Parathyroid hormones (PTH) have a what net effect on Ca and phosphorus?
    • Blood Ca increases
    • Blood phosphorous decreases
  39. What hormones cause blood Ca to increase and Blood Phosphorous to decrease?
    Parathyroid Hormones (PTH)
  40. What are primary causes of hyperparathyroidism?
    • Adenoma (80%)
    • Hyperplasia (18%)
    • Carcinoma (2%)
  41. What are secondary causes of Hyperparathyroidism?
    • Chronic renal disease
    • Vitamin D deficiency
  42. Vitamin D deficiency, adenoma, Chronic renal disease, Hyperplasia and Carcinoma can all cause what disease?
  43. Hyperparathyroidism causes waht pathologies in the body?
    Reabsorption of bone and renal calculi
  44. Reabsorbed bone and renal calculi indicate what disease?
    Hyperparathyroid disease
  45. What disease manifests itself with Decreased serum phosphate, increased serum PTH, Ca and alkaline phosphatase, bone pain, osteoporosis, osteitis fibrosa cystica and flank pain from renal calculi?
  46. What are the manifestation of hyperparathyroidism?
    • Flank pain from renal calculi
    • Bone pain
    • Osteitis fibrosa cystica
    • increaed serum Ca, PTH and alkaline phosphatase
    • Decreased serum phosphate