PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 20 - 1

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PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 20 - 1
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2013-04-09 23:00:16
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PTG 105 Exam Lecture 20
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PTG 105- Exam 3- Lecture 20 - 1
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  1. Name the endocrine organs of the body:
    • pituitary
    • Hypothalamus
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • Pancreas
    • adernal glands
    • ovaries/testes
  2. What are no most enodcrine disorders due to?
    Hyper or Hypo function of a gland
  3. Adenohypophysis is also called what?
    Anterior pituitary
  4. Neurohypophysis is also called what?
    posterior pituirary
  5. The adenohypophysis produce what six hormones?
    • GH
    • SCTH
    • TSH
    • FSH
    • LH
    • Prolactin
  6. The neurohypophysis produces what hormones?
    ADH and Oxytocin
  7. Where are oxytocin and ADH produced?
    Neurohypophysis
  8. What are diseases cause Hyperpituitarism?
    • Adenoma
    • hyperplasia
    • carcinoma of pituitary
  9. Adenoma, carcinoma of pituitary and hyperplasia can all cause what?
    Hyperpituitarism
  10. What is the most common cause of Hyperpituitarism?
    Functional Adenoma
  11. What are the causes of Hypopituitarism:
    • Ischemic injury
    • Surgery
    • Radiation
  12. Surgery, radiation or ischemic injury can all cause what?
    Hypopituitarism
  13. Panhypopituitarism can be caused by what four things?
    • Pituitary neoplasm
    • Postpartum hypotension
    • Surgical removal
    • destructive processes (sugery, radiation)
  14. Postpartum hypotension can cause what complication that leads to hypopituitarism?
    SHeehan syndrome = infarction of the gland
  15. What is infarction of the pituitary called?
    Sheehan syndrome
  16. How does Panhypopituitarism manifest itself?
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Adrenocortical insufficiency
    • Decreased pigmentation
    • Decresed lactation
    • Decreased growth in children
    • Decreased sexual function (libido)
  17. What disease can cause dwarfism?
    Panhypopitiotarism
  18. What is the treatment for panhypopituitarism?
    replacing hormones
  19. What are the risks if Panhypopituitarism is left untreated?
    Lethal
  20. Selective hypofunctioning of posterior pituitary can lead to what disease?
    Diabetes insipidus
  21. Diabetes insipidus is due to a deficiency in what hormone?
    ADH
  22. When ADh is low what disease may be caused?
    Diabetes insipidus
  23. What are two types of Hyperfunctioning pituitary disscussed in class?
    • Prolactinoma
    • GH secreting Adenoma
  24. Prolactinoma and GH secreting adenomas may cause what type of altered pituitary function?
    Hyperpituitarism
  25. What is Prolactinoma?
    Prolactin producing adenoma
  26. Who is at greatest risk for Prolactinoma?
    Women of child bearing age
  27. What are the symptoms of Prolactinoma?
    • Galactorrhea (abnormal lactation)
    • Amenorrhea
    • Low libido
    • Anovulation
    • Infertility
  28. Galactorrhea is what?
    Abnormal lactation
  29. What is the term for abnormal lactation?
    Galactorrhea
  30. What is the cause for someone who has Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, anovulation, infertility and loss of libido?
    Prolactinoma
  31. What hormone is responsible for normal lactation?
     Prolactin
  32. What does Growth hormone secreting adenoma or the pituitary cause?
    Gigantism or Acromegaly
  33. Gigantism and Acromegaly are caused by what disease?
    Growth hormone secreting adenoma of the pituitary
  34. Gigantism is found in what group of patients?
    Children
  35. Acromegaly is found in what group of patients?
    Adults
  36. What are the manifestations of acromegaly?
    • Large hands
    • coarse facial features
    • diabetes mellitus
    • muscle weakness
    • hypertension
    • Cardiac failure
  37. Large hands, hypertension, cardiac failure, muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and coarse facial features are all manifestations of what disease?
    Acromegaly
  38. What lab test is there for Gigantism and Acromegaly?
    GH increased in serum
  39. What is the treatment for GH secreting adenoma/Gigantism/Acromegaly?
    Surgical removal
  40. Pituitary gigantism includes what specific type of course facial features?
    Prominant jaw
  41. How is apituitary adenoma diagnosised?
    MRI CT
  42. What are the causes of reduced ADH production/Diabetes insipidus?
    metastic neoplasm, inflammation or trauma to the posterior pituitary
  43. How does Diabetes Insipidus manifest itself?
    • Polyuria
    • Polydipsia (increased intake of fluids)
  44. What is polydipsia?
    Increased intake of fluids
  45. What would you suspect a patient had if they were suffering from polyurea and polydispia?
    Diabetes insipidus
  46. What is the treatment for Diabetes insipidus caused by the posterior pituitary?
    • Hormone replacement
    • Surgery
  47. What is a goiter?
    Enlargment of the thyroid gland
  48. The thyroid follicle contains what?
    The hormone
  49. The hormone is contained where inside the thyroid?
    The thyroid follicle
  50. An enlarged thyroid is called what?
    A goiter
  51. What does T4 do?
    • increase cellular metabolism
    • effect brain and other organs nutritionally
  52. What does T3 do?
    Same as T4, nutritional metabolic control
  53. What does Calcitonin do?
    • Increases deposition of Ca and phosphate into the bone
    • Lowers blood Ca
  54. What hormone lowers blood Ca and increases Ca and phosphate deposition in the bone?
    Calcitonin
  55. What hormones are produced by the thyroid gland?
    T4, T3 and Calcitonin
  56. What are causes of Hypothyroidism?
    • Hashimoto's disease
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Iodine deficiency
    • Idiopathic
  57. What are the manifestations of of Hypothyroidism?
    • Decreased activity
    • Intolerance to cold
    • Dry skin/hair
    • Myxedma
    • Cretinism
    • Decreased T3, T4
    • Elevated TSH
    • Decreased I131 uptake

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