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What are some examples of biological changes that occur during puberty in adolescents?
sexual maturation, increases in height and weight, accu- mulation of skeletal mass, and changes in body composition.
What characterizes adolescent psychosocial development?
the struggle for independence
what are some positive and negative behaviors that can result from adolescent psychosocial development?
positive: leads to adoption of healthful eating practices, participation in competitive and non-competitive physical activities, and an overall interest in developing a healthy lifestyle.
negative: leads to the development of health-compromising eating behaviors, such as excessive dieting, meal skipping, use of uncon- ventional nutritional and nonnutritional supplements, and the adoption of fad diets.
*Describe the most likely causes for the dramatic rise in overweight in adolescents. How are genetics/ environment factors?
-Environmental factors, or interactions between genetic and en- vironmental factors
- having at least one overweight parent; coming from a low-income family; being of African American, Hispanic, or American Indian/Native Alaskan race/ethnicity; and being diagnosed with a chronic or disabling condition that limits mobility
What are some negative consequences of using anabolic-androgenic steroids?
-infertility, hypertension, physeal closure, depression, aggression, and increased risk of atherosclerosis.
• Gynecomastia (breast enlargement) • Prostate enlargement • Hirsuitism (facial hair in females)
the recommended methods for managing weight in adolescents.
- a staged care process based on BMI, comorbid conditions, age, and motivation.11 The four stages include
- (1) Prevention Plus,
- (2) structured weight management,
- (3) comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention, and
- (4) tertiary care inter- vention.
Explain the risk involved for overweight adolescents in becoming overweight adults.
-The persistence of overweight from childhood throughout adulthood has not been well quantified. Re- search suggests that the persistence of obesity from in- fancy to adulthood increases with age.
-As many as 90% of overweight adolescents can be expected to remain over- weight into adulthood
When hydrating for vigorous activities, when should fluid be consumed?
consume 6-8 oz of fluid prior to exercise, 4-6 oz every 15-20 minutes during physical ac- tivity, and at least 8 oz of fluid following exercise.
What % carbohydrate is recommended for the best performance?
6% to 8% carbohydrate
In highly competitive female athletes or in girls who severely restrict their calories to limit body fat, how is menarche affected?
may be delayed
What vitamin should an adolescent who smokes increase their consumption of?
Differentiate between anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder.
Anorexia nervosa• Characterized by extreme wt loss, poor body image, & irrational fears of wt gain & obesity
Bulimia nervosa• Characterized by recurrent episodes of rapid uncontrolled eating of large amounts of food in a short period of time frequently followed by purging
Binge-eating disorder• Characterized by periodic binge eating not followed by vomiting or use of laxatives
Are males or females vulnerable of eating disorders?
How is dieting related to body image?
body dissatisfaction is a main contributing factor to dieting behaviors
Describe an adolescent's behavior concerning snacking, skipping meals, and eating fast food.
- • Snacking and meal skipping common
- • Eating away from home and at fast-food restaurants
- • Consuming more soft drinks, less nutrient dense drinks
Is asking teens to avoid fast food restaurants a realistic goal for weight loss?
What are the reasons and issues involved in these behaviors?
peers & social and cultural norms.
What are the Tanner Stages and what are they used for?
to assess degree of pubertal maturation
The time frame during which the body matures from that of a child to that of a young adult.
The process of menstruation.
(onset of first menstrual period) occurs 2-4 years after initial development of breast buds.
age ranges from 9 to 17 years
secondary sexual characteristics
Physiological changes that signal puberty, including enlargement of the testes, penis, and breasts and the development of pubic and facial hair.
sexual maturation rating
Sexual Maturation Rating (SMR), also known as "Tanner Stages," is a scale of secondary sexual characteristics that allows health professionals to assess the degree of pubertal maturation among adolescents, regardless of chronological age. SMR is based on breast development and the appearance of pubic hair among fe- males, and on testicular and penile development and the appearance of pubic hair among males.
The ability to make effective decisions and to take responsible action based on one's own needs and desires.
Describe the relationship between time spent with adolescent peers and the frequency of family meals.
What benefits are associated with frequent family meals?
-As adolescents spend more time with peers, participation in family meals tends to steadily decline.
-this is an unfortunate occurrence, as more frequent family meals are associated with improved dietary intake among adolescents, including higher intakes of grains, fruits, and vegetables, and decreased intake of soft drinks.
-Vitamin and mineral intakes, including those of calcium, folate, fiber, iron, and vitamins A, C, E, B6, and B12, are higher among adolescents who frequently consume family meals
Painful menstruation due to abdominal cramps, back pain, headache, and/or other symptoms.
Exposures that produce malformations in embryos or fetuses.
Absence of menstrual cycle.
corpus 5 body, luteum 5 yellow) A tissue about 12 mm in diameter formed from the follicle that contained the ovum prior to its release. It produces estrogen and progesterone.The "yellow body" derivation comes from the accumulation of lipid precursors of these hormones in the corpus luteum.
Absence of production of children. Commonly used to mean a biological inability to bear children.
A disease characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue in abnormal locations, such as deep within the uterine wall, in the ovary, or in other sites within the body. The condition is quite painful and is associated with abnormal menstrual cycles and infertility in 30-40% of affected women
relating to, or done during the period from before conception to early pregnancy
increase in an organism's size through cell multiplication
enlargement of cell size
Death that occurs within the first year of life.
Swelling (usually of the legs and feet, but can also extend throughout the body) due to an accumulation of extracellular fluid.
An eating disorder characterized by the compulsion to eat substances that are not food.
characterized by severe nausea and vomiting that last throughout much of pregnancy
twins where two eggs were fertilized
- same sex half the time ; fraternal
twins where one egg was fertilized
- always the same sex ; identical
What is the difference between the terms fecundity and fertility?
Fertility refers to the actual production of children, whereas fecundity addresses the biological capacity to bear children.
What is the most common cause of miscarriage?
presence of a severe defect in the fetus
Estrogen and progesterone have roles during the menstrual cycle?
Estrogen and progesterone also prompt the uterine wall (or endometrium) to store glycogen and other nutrients and to expand the growth of blood vessels and connective tissue.
Which increases the most in the first half of the cycle? The second half?
First half of the cycle? Estrogen
The second half? Progesterone
What factors have been related to impaired fertility in males?
- • Inadequate zinc status
- • Heavy metal exposure (lead, mercury)
- • Halogen (in some pesticides) and glycol (in antifreeze, de-icers) exposure
- • Estrogen exposure (in DDT, PCBs)
- • Sperm defects (quality, motility)
- • Excessive heat to testes
- • Steroid abuse
- • High intake of soy foods
What is the primary reason women have given for discontinuation of the injectable contraceptive method (Depo-Provera)?
Weight gain averages 12 pounds during one to three years of Depo-Provera use.
Women taking birth control pills are cautioned against consuming more than ½ ounce of _________________.
Do too high or too low estrogen levels in women play a role in the development of infertility or are estrogen levels not a factor at all in infertility?
-Estrogen plays a key role in menstruation, it is imperative to preserve normal estrogen levels
-If a women is deficient in estrogen ... ovulation may not occur
The time to establish a state of optimal health and nutritional status is _____________conception.
What is the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for folate for all women (prepregnancy) of childbearing age ?
__________ _________ is the first therapeutic option for infertility in obese people
Weight reduction through diet and exercise
It is commonly recommended that women reduce their intake of ________________ to decrease PMS symptoms.
coffee and other beverages high in caffeine
Central body obesity is defined as a waist circumference of _____________.
35 inches or greater in women and over 40 inches in men
Describe the process involved in insulin resistance.
-insulin resistance- A condition in which cells "resist" the action of insulin in facilitating the passage of glucose into cells
-occurs along with obesity and contributes to adverse hormonal changes that affect fertility. Insulin can bind to specific receptors on the ovary and stimulate testosterone production. Androgens such as testosterone suppress follicular growth, leading to ovulatory dysfunction
If celiac disease is identified as a cause of infertility, fertility generally returns once _______________ is removed from the diet.