PTG 105 -Exam 3 -Lecture 21- 1

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PTG 105 -Exam 3 -Lecture 21- 1
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2013-04-10 01:00:08
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PTG 105 Exam Lecture 21
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PTG 105 -Exam 3 -Lecture 21- 1
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  1. Describe Achondroplasia
    Mutations that inhibit normal growth at the growth plates of bone
  2. What is the disease that causes mutations that prevent normal growth at the growth plates of bones?
    Achondroplasia
  3. What are the pathogenic effects of Achonroplasia?
    • Short stature
    • Reduced growth of long bones
    • Poorly organized epiphyseal cartilage
  4. What are the physical manifestations of Achondroplasia?
    • Short extremities
    • Bowed legs
    • Lordotic (sway back)
  5. What disease is suspect if a patient presents with Lordotic posture, short extremities and lowed legs?
    Achonroplasia
  6. What is the cause of Achondroplasia?
    Autosomal Dominant mutation
  7. What is another term for Osteogenesis imperfecta?
    Brittle bone disease
  8. What is another name for Brittle bone disease?
    Osteogenesis imperfecta
  9. Describe Osteogenisis imperfecta:
    Abnormal collagen formation that leads to bone fragility
  10. What disease includes abnormal collagen formation and resultant bone fragility?
    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease)
  11. What disease may clinically resemble child abuse?
    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease)
  12. How does Osteogenesis Imperfecta manifest itself?
    • Multiple bone fractures
    • In severe cases can cause fratures and death in utero
  13. What disease of the bone, also includes hearing loss, abnormal teeth and blue scera issues?
    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone)
  14. Wht does Osteogenesis imperfecta include issues witht teeth, hearing loss and blue sclera?
    Any Collagen containing area of the body can be affected
  15. If you see an x-ray that shows a thin tibia bone with low density and multiple fractures and bowing, what would be your diagnosis?
    Osteogenesis imperfecta
  16. Osteopetrosis is also called:
    Marble bone disease
  17. Marble bone disease is also called what?
    Osteoptrosis
  18. What is Osteopetrosis/Marble bone disease?
    Abnormally thick, heavily mineralized brittle bones
  19. What disease has Abnormally thick, heavily mineralized adn brittle bones?
    Osteopetrosis
  20. What is the cause of Osteopetrosis (Marble bone disease)
    AD or AR inhereitance
  21. What complications are there with Osteopetrosis?
    • Increased risk of fractures
    • Due to less bone marrow space:
    • anemia
    • thrombocytopenia
    • leukopenia
  22. What does anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia occur in patients with Osteopetrosis?
    Reduced bone marrow space
  23. What is osteoporosis?
    Quantitative decrease in bone mass and density with normal amount of mineral and matrix
  24. What disease is a quantitative decrease in bone mass with normal amount of mineral in the matrix?
    Osteoporosis
  25. What are some of the complications of Osteoporosis?
    Increased risk of fractures
  26. What is Osteopenia?
    quantitative bone loss seen on an x-ray
  27. What is the term for quantitaitve bone loss as seen on an X-ray?
    Osteopenia
  28. Osteoporosis is localized or generalized?
    Both
  29. What is a common cause of fracture in postmenopausal women?
    Osteoporosis
  30. Why are post menopausal women susceptable to osteoporosis?
    • Pm women have low estrogen
    • Estrogen promotes bone formation and inhibits resorption
  31. Why does bone mass decrease in Osteoporosis?
    Resorption is increased slightly
  32. When looking microscopically at a bone with osteoporosis, what would you see?
    Bone trabeculae are thin and widely spaced
  33. If bone trabeculae are thina nd widely spaced, what is indicated?
    Osteoporosis
  34. What are common fracture in PM women?
    collapse of vertebral bodies and femoral neck fractures
  35. What are the primary etiologies of osteoporosis?
    • Postmenopausal
    • Senile
    • Idiopathic
  36. what are the secondary etiologies of psteoporosis
    • Cushings
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Diabtes insipidus
    • Sedentary
    • RM
    • Vit. D def.
    • Alcohol
    • anticonvulsants
  37. Which races are more susceptibel to osteoporosis and which are less?
    • More: Caucasian and Asians
    • Less: Africans
  38. Hip fractures occur commonly in what group and due to what?
    Pm women with OP
  39. What is Rickets/Osteomalacia?
    • Soft bones due to defective bone mineralization
    • bone mass decreased , mineral content is normal
  40. What is the difference between Rickets and Osteomalacia?
    Osteomalacia is in adults and Rickets is in children

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