Biochem 14

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Dorky48
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212594
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Biochem 14
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2013-04-10 01:38:32
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14 biochem
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chapter 14
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  1. 1) The glutamate family of amino acids includes all of the following except _____.
    a. Glutamate
    b. Arginine
    c. Lysine
    d. Proline
    e. None of the above
    C
  2. 2)  Which of the following is an example of an excitatory neurotransmitter?
    a. Seratonin
    b. Glycine
    c. Glutamine
    d. Glutamate
    e. None of the above are correct
    D
  3. 3) All of the following are referred to collectively as the branched chain amino acids except _________
    a. Valine
    b. Glycine
    c. Leucine
    d. Isoleucine
    e. None of the above are correct
    E
  4. 4) Which of the following is an example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter?
    • GABA is most prevalent inhibitory
    • Glycine
  5. Glycine is used as a precursor molecule in the synthesis of all of the following except _______.
    Glycine is used as a precursor in the purine, porphyrin, and glutathione synthetic pathways
  6. 6) In plants fixed nitrogen is assimilated into __________.
    the amide group of glutamate
  7. 7) a-Ketoisovalerate is an intermediate formed during the synthesis of _________.
    valine and leucine
  8. 8) The group of molecules called the catecholamines include all of the following except
    The most abundant ones ARE: Norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine.
  9. 9) Tryptophan is a precursor in the synthesis of _________.
    • Serotonin
    • Niacin
    • auxin
    • β-carboline norharman
  10. 10) Chorismate is a precursor in the synthesis of all of the following except _______.
    tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine. also: prephenate
  11. 11) Molecules involved in histidine synthesis include ________.
    phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), ATP, and glutamine
  12. folic acid
    A vitamin of the B complex, found esp. in leafy green vegetables, liver, and kidney. A deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia
  13. 13) SAM is a methyl donor in the synthesis of ______.
    • nucleic acids
    • proteins
    • lipids
    • secondary metabolites
  14. 14) Amethopterin is a structural analogue of _________.
    Folate
  15. GSH is? Important why?
    It is an antioxidant, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides. May reduce cancer development
  16. 16) All of the following are purine bases except _____.
    purine bases include: adenine, guanine, xanthine, and hypoxanthine.
  17. 17) Deficiency of _____________ causes Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
    Hypozanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)
  18. 18) All of the following are directly involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid....
  19. 19)  Inorganic nitrogen is initially assimilated into which of the following amino acids
    glutamine, glutamate, asparagine, and aspartate
  20. 20) The amino acids serine and _______ are preferentially used to synthesize  glucose for export from the liver
  21. 21) Nitrogen fixation requires iron and ________ as cofactors.
  22. 22) One-carbon carriers in metabolism include
    SAM and tetrahydrofolate THF (folic acid)
  23. 23) Which of the following is an a-keto acid/a-amino acid pair used in transamination?
    a-ketoglutarate/glutamate, oxaloacetate/ aspartate, pyruvate/ alanine
  24. 24) In plants the pathway by which most ammonium ion is incorporated into organic molecules requires
  25. 25) Asparagine is formed from aspartic acid and ______.
    glutamine.
  26. 26) The benzene ring of the aromatic amino acids is formed by the
    shikimate pathway
  27. 27) The oxidation state of the methenyl group (-CH=) is comparable to that of ____.
    formyl (-CHO)
  28. 28) The methylated product of _______ is creatine.
    L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine
  29. 29) The fixation of nitrogen requires
    Anaerobic Conditions
  30. 30) Most aminotransferaes utilize ________as the recipient a-keto acid.
    a-ketoglutarate
  31. 31) The primary energy source for enterocytes is:
    short-chain fatty acids
  32. _______ ATP molecules are required to convert one mole of nitrogen to two ammonia molecules.
    16
  33. 33) The first step in nitrogen fixation is  ___
    reduction of atmospheric nitrogen by nitrogen-fixing bacteria to yield ammonia NH3 or NH4
  34. 34) The major form of regulation of nitrogen fixation is _______.
    transcriptional control of approximately 20 nitrogen fixation genes
  35. 35) The first amino acid containing newly fixed nitrogen is _______.
    glutamate
  36. 36) Which of the following is not a gasotransmitter?
    examples of gasotransmitters are: nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide
  37. 37)  Which of the following compounds is not present in the normal process of nitrogen fixation
  38. 38) Hydrogen sulfide is produced from
    cysteine by several enzymes [pyridoxal phosphate requiring enzymes cystathione beta-synthetase (CBS) and CSE]
  39. 39) The six families of amino acids are glutamate, aromatic, serine, aspartate, pyruvate and _______.
    histidine
  40. 40) Which of the following neurotransmitters are derived from amino acids?
    GABA, catecholamines, serotonin, and histamine
  41. 41) In ocean water phytoplankton growth is limited  by temperature and low levels of nutrients containing
    nitrogen (and phosphorous)
  42. 42) Hypoxic water is characterized by
     low oxygen conditions
  43. 43) The ultimate products of mineralization of organic nitrogen is
    NH3, NO3-, NO2- (nitrite), and eventually N2
  44. 44)  The most common intracellular reducing agent is
    glutathione
  45. 45) In nitrogen fixation by microorganisms what gas other than ammonia is produced?
    hydrogen gas
  46. 46) Which of the following is not a function of glutathione
    Glutathione is an antioxidant - protects the body against oxidative stress, radiation, uv light, etc.

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