Card Set Information
1) The glutamate family of amino acids includes all of the following except _____.
e. None of the above
2) Which of the following is an example of an excitatory neurotransmitter?
e. None of the above are correct
3) All of the following are referred to collectively as the branched chain amino acids except _________
e. None of the above are correct
4) Which of the following is an example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter?
GABA is most prevalent inhibitory
Glycine is used as a precursor molecule in the synthesis of all of the following except _______.
Glycine is used as a precursor in the purine, porphyrin, and glutathione synthetic pathways
6) In plants fixed nitrogen is assimilated into __________.
the amide group of glutamate
7) a-Ketoisovalerate is an intermediate formed during the synthesis of _________.
valine and leucine
8) The group of molecules called the catecholamines include all of the following except
The most abundant ones ARE: Norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine.
9) Tryptophan is a precursor in the synthesis of _________.
10) Chorismate is a precursor in the synthesis of all of the following except _______.
tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine. also: prephenate
11) Molecules involved in histidine synthesis include ________.
phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), ATP, and glutamine
A vitamin of the B complex, found esp. in leafy green vegetables, liver, and kidney. A deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia
13) SAM is a methyl donor in the synthesis of ______.
14) Amethopterin is a structural analogue of _________.
GSH is? Important why?
It is an antioxidant, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides. May reduce cancer development
16) All of the following are purine bases except _____.
purine bases include: adenine, guanine, xanthine, and hypoxanthine.
17) Deficiency of _____________ causes Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Hypozanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)
18) All of the following are directly involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid....
19) Inorganic nitrogen is initially assimilated into which of the following amino acids
glutamine, glutamate, asparagine, and aspartate
20) The amino acids serine and _______ are preferentially used to synthesize glucose for export from the liver
21) Nitrogen fixation requires iron and ________ as cofactors.
22) One-carbon carriers in metabolism include
SAM and tetrahydrofolate THF (folic acid)
23) Which of the following is an a-keto acid/a-amino acid pair used in transamination?
a-ketoglutarate/glutamate, oxaloacetate/ aspartate, pyruvate/ alanine
24) In plants the pathway by which most ammonium ion is incorporated into organic molecules requires
25) Asparagine is formed from aspartic acid and ______.
26) The benzene ring of the aromatic amino acids is formed by the
27) The oxidation state of the methenyl group (-CH=) is comparable to that of ____.
28) The methylated product of _______ is creatine.
L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine
29) The fixation of nitrogen requires
30) Most aminotransferaes utilize ________as the recipient a-keto acid.
31) The primary energy source for enterocytes is:
short-chain fatty acids
_______ ATP molecules are required to convert one mole of nitrogen to two ammonia molecules.
33) The first step in nitrogen fixation is ___
reduction of atmospheric nitrogen by nitrogen-fixing bacteria to yield ammonia NH3 or NH4
34) The major form of regulation of nitrogen fixation is _______.
transcriptional control of approximately 20 nitrogen fixation genes
35) The first amino acid containing newly fixed nitrogen is _______.
36) Which of the following is not a gasotransmitter?
examples of gasotransmitters are: nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide
37) Which of the following compounds is not present in the normal process of nitrogen fixation
38) Hydrogen sulfide is produced from
cysteine by several enzymes [pyridoxal phosphate requiring enzymes cystathione beta-synthetase (CBS) and CSE]
39) The six families of amino acids are glutamate, aromatic, serine, aspartate, pyruvate and _______.
40) Which of the following neurotransmitters are derived from amino acids?
GABA, catecholamines, serotonin, and histamine
41) In ocean water phytoplankton growth is limited by temperature and low levels of nutrients containing
nitrogen (and phosphorous)
42) Hypoxic water is characterized by
low oxygen conditions
43) The ultimate products of mineralization of organic nitrogen is
NH3, NO3-, NO2- (nitrite), and eventually N2
44) The most common intracellular reducing agent is
45) In nitrogen fixation by microorganisms what gas other than ammonia is produced?
46) Which of the following is not a function of glutathione
Glutathione is an antioxidant - protects the body against oxidative stress, radiation, uv light, etc.