Lab Final - Ointments

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  1. what are ointments
    semisolid preps for external application to skin or mucous
  2. uses of ointments
    • medicated: antifungal/keratolytic (e.g. benzoic acid/salicylic acid) or skin irritation/inflammation (e.g. hydrocortisone ointment)
    • non medicated: emollient or lubricant (e.g. vaseline)
  3. transappendageal penetration goes through:
    • hair follicles
    • sweat glands
    • sebum gland
  4. types of ointment bases
    • oleaginous
    • absorption
    • w/o emulsion
    • o/w emulsion
    • water soluble
  5. oleaginous bases (made of, examples, solubility, description)
    • insoluble in water
    • e.g. petrolatum, white petrolatum
    • emollient, occlusive, greasy
  6. absorption bases (made of, examples, solubility, description)
    • w/o emulsifying agent + oleaginous base
    • e.g. hydrophilic petrolatum, aquabase, aquaphor
    • insoluble in water
  7. w/o emulsion (made of, examples, solubility, description)
    • absorption base + water
    • e.g. cold cream, Eucerin, hydrous lanolin
    • insoluble in water
    • not water washable
    • contains water
    • emollient, occlusive, greasy
  8. o/w emulsion (made of, examples, solubility, description)
    • disappear or vanish on application, non-occlusive, non-greasy
    • hydrophilic ointment
    • e.g. Dermabase, Unibase
    • will absorb water
    • water washable
    • contains water
  9. water soluble (made of, examples, solubility, description)
    • has no oil phase
    • e.g. polyethylene glycol ointment
    • water soluble, water washable
    • will absorb water
    • anhydrous or hydrous
    • non occlusive and non greasy
  10. things used to preserve ointments
    • chemical antimicrobials
    • p-hydroxybenzoates
    • phenols
    • benzoic acid
    • sorbic acid
    • quaternary ammonium salts
    • organic mercury compounds
    • formaldelyde
  11. ways to prepare an ointment
    • incorporation: mix together with mortar/pestle, spatula or slab roller
    • fusion: melt and mix in porcelain dish or beaker

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Lab Final - Ointments
2013-04-10 13:43:36
Lab Final

Lab Final
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