Lab Final - Ophthalmic and Otics

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  1. normal volume of tear fluids
    7-8 μl
  2. blinking eye retains:
    10 μl of fluid
  3. average drop size:
    50 μl
  4. optimal administration volume
    5-10 μl
  5. percent of administered dose that is absorbed
    < 1%
  6. how to sterilize ophthalmic suspensions and ointments
    • filtered through 0.45μ or 0.2μ filter
    • gas/steam sterilized
  7. what is a Na equivalent
    amount of NaCl that has the same osmotic effect as 1 g of the drug
  8. excipients of an ophthalmic suspension
    • preservatives: destroy micro-organisms from multiple use containers
    • viscosity increasing agents: slow drainage of product from eye
    • antioxidants: improves stability
    • wetting agents: reduce surface tension, allow spreading over the eye
    • buffers: maintain pH
    • tonicity agents: keeps it isotonic
  9. example of preservative used in ophthalmic agents
  10. example of viscosity-inc agents used in ophthalmic agents
    • methylcellulose (MC)
    • hydroxyethylcellulose (HPMC)
    • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
  11. examples of antioxidants used in ophthalmic agents
    • isoascorbic acid
    • EDTA
  12. examples of wetting agents used in ophthalmic agents
    polysorbate 20
  13. examples of buffers used in ophthalmic agents
    boric acid
  14. examples of tonicity agents used in ophthalmic agents
  15. stability of ophthalmic agents
    • 14 days
    • don't freeze
  16. what are the ophthalmic formulations
    • solutions
    • suspensions
    • ointments/gels
    • inserts
  17. ophthalmic solutions advantages
    • water soluble drugs or salts (HCl, HBr, sulfates, nitrates, PO4)
    • uniform dose
    • good bioavailability
    • easy to scale up
  18. ophthalmic solutions disadvantages
    rapid lacrimal drainage and limited eye capacity mandates - use viscosity enhancers to lower drainage and inc contact
  19. ophthalmic suspension advantages
    • water insoluble drugs
    • improved stability and bioavailability
  20. ophthalmic suspension particle size
    < 10 μm for 90% of particles
  21. ophthalmic ointments/gels advantages
    more contact time and bioavailability
  22. ophthalmic ointments/gels disadvantages
    blurred vision is a safety hazard, use at night
  23. ophthalmic ointment base
    • white petrolatum
    • mineral oil
  24. ophthalmic gel base
    • gel polymers:
    • carbopols
    • cellulose gums
    • PVA
  25. ocular inserts are:
    disks of glycerinated gelatin placed under the eyelids
  26. polymers for ocular inserts
    • polyacrylamide
    • vinylpyrrollidone
    • HPC
  27. ocular insert advantages
    • controlled release
    • low drug exposure - less toxicity
    • site-specific release
    • better patient compliance
    • accurate dosing
  28. otic preparation adv and disadv
    • liquid (solution or suspension): suspension for longer duration
    • ointment: applied to exterior of ear, seldom used
    • powder: fine powder insufflations; fear of powder-wax buildup
  29. otic formulations
    • cerumenlytic
    • anti-infective
    • anti-inflammatory/analgesic
  30. cerumenlytic solution formulation
    • light mineral oil, hydrogen peroxide
    • surfactants: triethanolamine polypeptide oleate
    • carbamide peroxide
  31. anti-infective formualation
    • chloramphenicol
    • nystatin
    • neomycin
  32. anti-inflammatory/analgesic formulation
    • hydrocortisone
    • dexamthasone
  33. otic preparation
    sterility not required, but must be clean
  34. vehicles used for otics
    • glycerin
    • PG
    • low MW PEG
    • water
    • alcohol
    • veggie oil
  35. hygroscopicity of otic prep
    aids in products' ability to withdraw fluid and keep ear dry
  36. surfactant properties of otic preps
    help in breaking hardened ear wax and removing foreign material

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Lab Final - Ophthalmic and Otics
2013-04-10 16:06:55
Lab Final

Lab Final
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