Anomie - normlessness; lack if regulatory constraints to maintain social change
The Chicago School - Who?
Parks & Burgess
Shaw & McKay
The Concentric Theory - Main points
City is like a circle; the closer the center, the more social disorganization exists; less when moved to outer circle
Due to: lower socio-economic status, mixture of ethnicity, high mobility, disrupted familes
Zone 2 & 3 Worst
Anomie Theory - Who created it?
Anomie Theory - Main Points
Acceptable/socially available means
Gap between; puts strain on people
Social stratification and cultural structure produce deviance
People adapt to the socially structured contradiction via modes of adaption
MOA - Innovation
Reject means; accept goals - criminal
MOA - Ritualism
Accept means; reject goals
MOA - Retreatism
Reject goals and means
MOA - Conformity
Accept goals and means
MOA - Rebellion
Reject goals and means; institute alternate goals
Subcultural Theory - Created by?
Subcultural Theory - Main points
Asserted that lower class youths are deviant due to non-conformist values which produces non-conformist behaviour
Subcultural Theory - Miller
Examined high rates of crime among immigrants in the US
Conflicting cultures - have different values and behaviour
Subcultural Theory - Miller
Looked at gang behaviour and viewed it as a lower-class phenomena
Lower-class culture is identifiable by "Focal Concerns"
Subcultural Theory - Cohen
Characterized lower and middle class subcultures
Measuring rod: Performance in school is measured by middle-class standards; Inability to measure up by lower-class youth; Reaction formation occurs; adoption of opposing values and behaviour; gangs provide group support; hostility, self-concept is nurtured
Differential Association - Created by?
Differential Association - Main points
Deviant behaviour learned through interactions in social context
Learning differs according to one's associations
Role of direct association
Deviant behaviour results when excess attitudes in favor of law-violation
Probability of learning deviance-depends of frequency, duration, priority, and intensity of it's associations
Labelling Theory - Created by?
Labelling Theory - Main Points
Criminal behaviour results from societal reaction to non-conformity
Labelling Theory - General Concerns
Origins of criminal labeling
Applications of criminal labeling
Consequences following those labeled as a criminal
Labelling Theory - Tannenbaum
Groundwork for labelling process "tagging"
Labelling Theory - Lemert
Why does an act become defined as a crime?
What results from labeling someone a criminal?
Primary and secondary criminal behaviour. Secondary largest concern
Labelling Theory - Becker
Moral entrepreneurs : define deviance and crime
Master status of criminal : "deviant" becomes primary label attached to an individual
To respond to criminality: decriminalize/diver
Opportunity Theory - Created by
Cloward & Ohlin
Added to Merton`s theory
Opportunity Theory - Main points
looked at particular types of deviance
Like legitimate opportunities, illegitimate opportunities are unequally distributed
Illegitimate Opportunity - Criminal
Apprenticeship opportunities; access to experienced criminals, crime for money
Illegitimate Opportunity - Conflict
Lack of access to organized crime/criminals
Criminal activity an expression of hostility and frustration; like fighting