1150

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Author:
xx.chelsii
ID:
212666
Filename:
1150
Updated:
2013-04-10 15:06:18
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Theories
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Description:
Lecture 9 & 10
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  1. Social Disorganization Theory - Created by:
    Durkheim
  2. Social Disorganization Theory - Main Points
    • Consensus perspective on society
    • Collective conscience - Reinforced by crime
    • Anomie - normlessness; lack if regulatory constraints to maintain social change
  3. The Chicago School - Who?
    • Parks & Burgess
    • Shaw & McKay
  4. The Concentric Theory - Main points
    • City is like a circle; the closer the center, the more social disorganization exists; less when moved to outer circle
    • Due to: lower socio-economic status, mixture of ethnicity, high mobility, disrupted familes

    Zone 2 & 3 Worst
  5. Anomie Theory - Who created it?
    Merton
  6. Anomie Theory - Main Points
    • Cultural goals
    • Acceptable/socially available means
    • Gap between; puts strain on people
    • Structured hierarchal
    • Social stratification and cultural structure produce deviance
    • People adapt to the socially structured contradiction via modes of adaption
  7. MOA - Innovation
    Reject means; accept goals - criminal
  8. MOA - Ritualism
    Accept means; reject goals
  9. MOA - Retreatism
    Reject goals and means
  10. MOA - Conformity
    Accept goals and means
  11. MOA - Rebellion
    Reject goals and means; institute alternate goals
  12. Subcultural Theory - Created by?
    • Sellin
    • Miller
    • Cohen
  13. Subcultural Theory - Main points
    Asserted that lower class youths are deviant due to non-conformist values which produces non-conformist behaviour
  14. Subcultural Theory - Miller
    • Examined high rates of crime among immigrants in the US
    • Conflicting cultures - have different values and behaviour
  15. Subcultural Theory - Miller
    • Looked at gang behaviour and viewed it as a lower-class phenomena
    • Lower-class culture is identifiable by "Focal Concerns"
  16. Subcultural Theory - Cohen
    • Characterized lower and middle class subcultures
    • Measuring rod: Performance in school is measured by middle-class standards; Inability to measure up by lower-class youth; Reaction formation occurs; adoption of opposing values and behaviour; gangs provide group support; hostility, self-concept is nurtured
  17. Differential Association - Created by?
    Sutherland
  18. Differential Association - Main points
    • Differential association:
    • Deviant behaviour learned through interactions in social context
    • Learning differs according to one's associations
    • Role of direct association
    • Deviant behaviour results when excess attitudes in favor of law-violation
    • Probability of learning deviance-depends of frequency, duration, priority, and intensity of it's associations
  19. Labelling Theory - Created by?
    • Tannenbaum
    • Lemert
    • Becker
  20. Labelling Theory - Main Points
    Criminal behaviour results from societal reaction to non-conformity
  21. Labelling Theory - General Concerns
    • Origins of criminal labeling
    • Applications of criminal labeling
    • Consequences following those labeled as a criminal
  22. Labelling Theory - Tannenbaum
    Groundwork for labelling process "tagging"
  23. Labelling Theory - Lemert
    • Central questions:
    • Why does an act become defined as a crime?
    • What results from labeling someone a criminal?

    Primary and secondary criminal behaviour. Secondary largest concern

    7 propositions
  24. Labelling Theory - Becker
    • Moral entrepreneurs : define deviance and crime
    • Master status of criminal : "deviant" becomes primary  label attached to an individual
    • To respond to criminality: decriminalize/diver
  25. Opportunity Theory - Created by
    • Cloward & Ohlin
    • Added to Merton`s theory
  26. Opportunity Theory - Main points
    • looked at particular types of deviance
    • Like legitimate opportunities, illegitimate opportunities are unequally distributed
  27. Illegitimate Opportunity - Criminal
    Apprenticeship opportunities; access to experienced criminals, crime for money
  28. Illegitimate Opportunity - Conflict
    • Lack of access to organized crime/criminals
    • Criminal activity an expression of hostility and frustration; like fighting
  29. Illegitimate Opportunity - Retreatist
    • Double failures
    • Lack of legitimate and illegitimate opportunities
  30. The 7 Theories
    • Subcultural
    • Differential Association
    • Concentric Circle
    • Social Disorganization
    • Labeling
    • Opportunity
    • Anomie

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