How does neural control differ from hormonal control?
1. Neural control: very fast, affects only specific areas, short term effects
2. Hormonal control: slower, affects whole body, long term effects
What are the different classes of hormones?
1. Lipid soluble: longer lifespan, direct access to the DNA through the plasma and nuclear membrane, carrier/chaperone proteins guide hormone through blood
2. Not lipid soluble: shorter lifespan, cannot pass through plasma membrane, binds to receptor proteins, secondary messenger system to change DNA, amplification allows one hormone to send many G protein coupled receptors signals
What are the 2 types of hypothalamic hormones the regulate the pituitary hormones?
1. Inhibiting: put the brakes on, prevents pituitary from releasing hormone
2. Releasing: press the gas, stimulates pituitary to release hormones
How do the hypothalamic hormones get to the pituitary gland?
The portal vessel system:
1. Different flow of blood than the circulatory system
2. Contains 2 capillary beds
3. Allows hormones to travel directly from hypothalamus to pituitary gland without having to travel throughout the whole body
How many hormones are released from the pituitary gland and which ones should we focus on?
-9 released from the pituitary: ADTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, MSH, ADH, OXT
1. ADH - Antidiuretic hormone, promotes water retention, increases blood pressure and volume
2. OXT - Oxytocin, causes uterine contractions in labor, secreted after orgasm and during nursing, "bonding moments"
3. GH - Growth hormone, stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating rate of protein synthesis
What hormones are released by the thyroid gland?
1. T3/T4: responds to TSH from the pituitary, instigates the calorigenic effect, controls how fast we burn our glucose, makes energy and raises our body temp
2. Cacitonin: tone it down, causes a decrease in blood Ca2+, inhibits osteoclasts, stimulates Ca2+ secretion by kidneys
What is the hormone released by the parathyroid gland?
1. PTH: parathyroid hormone, stimulates osteoclasts and inhibits osteoblasts, activates calcitriol release from kidneys to enhance absorption of Ca2+ by the digestive tract
What are the hormones released by the adrenal glands?
1. Aldosterone: controls blood pressure by regulating the level of minerals in our blood
2. E and NE: increases ATP production from break down of glycogen and fat, increases heart rate and force of muscle contraction
What are the hormones released by the pancreas?
1. Glucagon: produced by alpha cells, raises blood glucose levels by increasing the breakdown rate of glycogen
2. Insulin: produced by beta cells, lowers blood glucose by increasing the rate of glucose uptake in the cell, increasing glycogen synthesis
What are the hormones released by the kidneys?
1. Erythropoietin: EPO, released in response to low oxygen levels in the blood, stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells
What are the hormones released by the gonads?
1. Testosterone: supports functional maturation of sperm, male secondary sex characteristics, and associated behaviors
2. Estrogen: Supports follicle maturation, female secondary sex characteristics, and associated behaviors
3. Progesterone: prepares uterus for implantation, prepares mammary glands for secretory activity