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July 1, 1916: Brits and French attacked Germans near the __in France. __mowed them down as they walked through __. More than 21,000 soldiers dead in one day and one million after __ months. __, an English war correspondent, said the boys in the German trench were young and bodies were separate.
- Somme River
- No-Man’s Land
- Philip Gibbs
__was the defining event of the 20th. It devastated the prewar __, __, and __ order of Europe and prepared the way for the more terrible __. It’s called the __, which was disturbing because it came after the __, when Europeans were able to avoid conflicts. However, the __problem of 1912 and 1913, despite the belief of __synthesis as Europeans kept problems under control, made it no longer possible to lie about __. Instead of __, Europe was a nightmare. It killed the idea of __.
- economic, social, and political
- Great War
- age of progress
The Road to WWI: __: heir to Austrian throne, __ was assassinated in _. This was not the decisive factor of the war as previous assassinations didn’t lead to war. There were also long-term forces.
- June 28, 1914
- Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- a. 1st half of 19th: liberals maintained that organization of European states along national linesà peaceful Europe based on “international fraternity”= WRONG
- i. This led to competition and rivalries over colonial and commercial interests during the new imperialism
Two loose alliances
- i. Also led to two loose alliances
- 1. Governments that did not participate were humiliated, while those that went to brink of war were praised
- ii. 1914: these alliances were important and supporting them was even more so
- a. Diplomacy based on brinkmanship was frightening
- i. Each nation-state regarded self as sovereign and driven by own self-interest and success, which contributed to war, especially since most statesmen considered war as way to preserve power of national states
Within each state
- 1. Within each state, there were circles of political and military leaders who thought war was inevitable and provided chance to achieve goals
- a. Germany: people who wanted creation of German empire by taking parts of Russia, Belgium and France
- b. France wanted regain of Alsace-Lorranine
- c. Austria-Hungary wanted to prevent Serbia from expanding
- d. Britain wanted to save world empire
- e. Russia needed to maintain status and acted as protector of Serves