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2013-04-10 19:19:11
HON 122

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  1. July 1, 1916: Brits and French attacked Germans near the __in France. __mowed them down as they walked through __. More than 21,000 soldiers dead in one day and one million after __ months. __, an English war correspondent, said the boys in the German trench were young and bodies were separate. 
    • Somme River
    • Germans
    • No-Man’s Land
    • 6
    • Philip Gibbs
  2. __was the defining event of the 20th. It devastated the prewar __, __, and __ order of Europe and prepared the way for the more terrible __. It’s called the __, which was disturbing because it came after the __, when Europeans were able to avoid conflicts. However, the __problem of 1912 and 1913, despite the belief of __synthesis as Europeans kept problems under control, made it no longer possible to lie about __. Instead of __, Europe was a nightmare. It killed the idea of __.
    • WWI
    • economic, social, and political
    • WWII
    • Great War
    • age of progress
    • Balkan
    • utopian
    • progress
    • utopia
    • progress
  3. The Road to WWI: __: heir to Austrian throne, __ was assassinated in _. This was not the decisive factor of the war as previous assassinations didn’t lead to war. There were also long-term forces.
    • June 28, 1914
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    • Sarajevo
  4. Nationalism
    1st half
    • a.      1st half of 19th: liberals maintained that organization of European states along national linesà peaceful Europe based on “international fraternity”= WRONG
    •                                                               i.      This led to competition and rivalries over colonial and commercial interests during the new imperialism
  5. Two loose alliances
    •                                                               i.      Also led to two loose alliances
    • 1.      Governments that did not participate were humiliated, while those that went to brink of war were praised
    •                                                             ii.      1914: these alliances were important and supporting them was even more so
  6. Diplomacy
    • a.      Diplomacy based on brinkmanship was frightening
    •                                                               i.      Each nation-state regarded self as sovereign and driven by own self-interest and success, which contributed to war, especially since most statesmen considered war as way to preserve power of national states
  7. Within each state
    • 1.      Within each state, there were circles of political and military leaders who thought war was inevitable and provided chance to achieve goals
    • a.      Germany: people who wanted creation of German empire by taking parts of Russia, Belgium and France
    • b.      France wanted regain of Alsace-Lorranine
    • c.       Austria-Hungary wanted to prevent Serbia from expanding
    • d.      Britain wanted to save world empire
    • e.       Russia needed to maintain status and acted as protector of Serves