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2013-04-10 19:58:51
HON 122

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  1. The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914
    • a.      Militarism, nationalism, and desire to end internal dissent, as well as decisions made by European leaders= WWI
    • b.      Balkans
    •                                                               i.      States in SE Europe wanted freedom from Ottomans
    • 1.      Rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Russia for control of these statesà tensions
  2. Problems in the Balkans intensified
    •                                                               i.      Problem intensified
    • 1.      1914: Serbia, supported by Russia, was determined to create large, independent, Slavic state in the Balkans, but Austria prevented it
    • 2.      Many Europeans saw the dangers in combo of Serbian ambition with Russian opposition to Austria and Austria’s belief that Serbia’s success would end their empire
  3. Assassination
    •                                                               i.      Carried out by Bosnian activist, who worked for the Black Hand, a  Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom on June 28, 1914
    •                                                             ii.      Austrian government didn’t know if Serbian government was directly involved, but still saw opportunity 
  4. Scared
    • 1.      Scared of Russia intervention, Austria allied with Germans
    • a.      Emperor William II and chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg responded with “blank check,” giving their full support
  5. Franz Conrad von Hotzebdorf
    •                                                               i.      Led by Franz Conrad von Hotzebdorf, chief of the Austro-Hungarians General Staff, Austrian leaders decided by July 14 to send Serbia an ultimatum that threatened war, but they waited until the end of the official French state visit to Russia before issuing it
    • 1.      ON July 23, after French President left Russia, Austrian leaders issued it, to which Serbia rejected to preserve its sovereigntyà Austria declares war
  6. Declaration of War
    •                                                               i.      Russia supported Serbia
    • 1.      On July 28, Tsar Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria
    • a.      At this point, military war plans played havoc with diplomatic and political issues
  7. Russian General Staff
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The Russian General Staff informed tsar that mobilization plans were based on war against both Germany and Austria; they couldn’t do partial without creating chaos in the armyà full mobilization
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Germans saw this as threat and gave ultimatum to Russia to halt their mobilizationà Russia ignoredà declared war on August 1
  8. German war plans
    1.      Under General Alfred von Schlieffen, German General Staff devised a military plan based on assumption of a two-front war with France and Russia, since the two powers had formed a military alliance in 1894
  9. Schlieffen Plan
    a.      The Schlieffen Plan called for a minimal troop deployment against Russia while most of the German army would make a rapid invasion of western France by way of neutral Belgium      
  10. After planned defeat
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      After planned defeat of French, German army expected to redeploy to east against Russia
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Under Plan, Germany couldn’t mobilize its troops solely against Russiaà declared war on France after issuing ultimatum to Belgium demanding right of German troops to pass through their territory
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      August 4: Brits declare war Germany over the violation of Belgian neutrality but in fact over their desire to maintain world power