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  1. Prolongation
    • a.      Prolongationà total war that transformed governments, economies, and societies of the European belligerents
    •                                                               i.      Need to organize masses of men and materiel for years of combat led to increased centralization of government, economic regimentation, and manipulation of public opinion to keep war effort going
  2. Political centralization and economic regimentation
    •                                                               i.      WWIà patriotism and socialist support, but since war dragged, they needed more patriotism
    • 1.      Since assumption that war would be short, they neglected economy and long-term war needs and now had to respond quickly
  3. Extension of gov. power
    • 1.      System of mass conscription/ military draft that now mobilized tens of millions of young men
    • a.      Volunteers (like in Britain) were replaced with conscription, especially to make sure skilled workers didn’t enlist but remained in factories crucial to production of ar needs
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1916: compulsory military service despite resistance to gov. extension
  4. Wartime gov.
    •                                                               i.      Wartime governments expanded their powers over their economies
    • 1.      Free market capitalistic systems shelved as governments experimented with price, wage, and rent controls, rationing, regulation of imports and exports, and nationalization of transportation systems and industries
    • Some governments had compulsory employment
  5. To mobilize
    •                                                               i.      To mobilize entire resources, nations had moved toward planned economies directed by government agencies
    • 1.      Under total war mobilization, the distinction between soldiers at war and civilians at home was narrowed
    • a.      All citizens constituted a national army dedicated to victory 
  6. Not all European nations made shift to total war well
    •                                                       1.      Germany had most success in developing a planned economy
    • a.      Beginning of war: government asked Walter Rathenau, head of German General Electric Company, to use his business methods to organize the War Raw Materials Board, which would allocate strategic raw materials to produce the goods that were most needed

                                                                                                                                          i.      He made it possible for German war machine to be effectively supplied    
  7. Germany and rationing
    • a.      Before war, they had to import 20% of food supply, but Brit blockade and decline in farm labor made food shortages inevitable
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Food rations cut from 1350 calories to 1000
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Turnips were basic staple for poor and thousands died of hunger
  8. German war government
    a.      Two popular military heroes of the war, General Paul von Hindenburg, chief of General Staff, and Erich Ludendorff, deputy chief of staff, controlled government and were military dictators of Germany
  9. Declared
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Declared system of total war
    • 1.      In the Auxiliary Service Law of Dec 2, 1916, they required all male noncombatants between 17 and 60 to work only in jobs deemed crucial to the war effort
  10. Germany's poltical system
    1.      Germany had authoritarian political system before war, while France and Britain did not, but even in those countries, central gov was increased
  11. Brits
    • 1.      At first, Brits tried to fight war by liberal tradition of limited government interference in economy, but government had to take more active role in economy
    • The need to ensure adequate production of munitions led to creation of Ministry of Munitions under David loyd George
  12. Ministry of Munitions
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Took numerous steps to ensure that private industry would produce war material at limited profits
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Developed vast bureaucracy of 65k clerks to oversee munitions plants
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      In 1915, it was given power to take over plants manufacturing war goods that didn’t cooperate with government
    • b.      Brit government also rationed food supplies and imposed rent controls
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2013-04-12 02:55:34
HON 122

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