Alcamo's Ch11 Diseases

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medic11
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212760
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Alcamo's Ch11 Diseases
Updated:
2013-04-14 11:36:32
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BI 301
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Foodborne Diseases
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  1. The causative agent for gastric ulcer disease is ___ ___.
    Helicobactor pylori
  2. Helicobactor pylori is transmitted how?
    • Contaminated food or water 
    • Saliva (direct or indirect)
  3. What disease is characterized by aching/burning abd pain, N/V, bloating and bloody vomit &/or stool?
    Gastric Ulcer Disease
  4. What toxin is created by H. Pylori?
    Cytotoxin
  5. Tx for gastric ulcer disease is a combination of what 2 things?
    Antibiotics and antacids
  6. Explain the steps in gastric ulcer disease.
    • Bacteria attaches to stomach wall
    • Secretes urea, digesting urease producing ammonia
    • Ammonia neutralizes acid around infection
    • Ammonia & cytotoxin destroy mucus secreting cells
    • 0.6-12 cm ulcer appears
  7. Gastric ulcer disease which belongs to what class of gastroenteritis can be prevented how?
    • Invasive
    • Good hygiene & not sharing utensils or glasses
  8. Yersiniosis is a form of ____ gastroenteritis that is caused by ___ ___.
    • Invasive
    • Yersinia enterocolitica
  9. Yersinia enterocolitica causes ___ and is transmitted in what ways?
    • Yersiniosis
    • Consumption of contaminated food that came in contact w/infected domestic animals,
    • Raw or undercooked pork products, Contaminated water or milk
  10. Y. enterocolitica causes destruction of the ____ which creates what S&S?
    • Ileum 
    • Diarrhea & severe abd pain
  11. Tx for yersiniosis is either ___ or ___ for severe or prolonged cases.
    • Nothing
    • Antibiotics
  12. Yersinia enterocolitica is most prevalent in ___ but can be prevented how?
    • Children
    • By avoiding raw or undercooked pork & good hand hygiene
  13. Campylobacteriosis is classified as a ____ gastroenteritis and caused by ___ ___.
    • Invasive
    • Campylobactor jejuni
  14. Campylobactor jejuni causes what malady and is transmitted how?
    • Campylobactoriosis
    • Exposure to contaminated food or water
  15. How does campylobacteriosis effect the body?
    Bacterial cells colonize in the sm and lg intestine
  16. What are the S&S of a Campylobactor jejuni infection and what toxins cause them?
    • Diarrhea, fever and bloody stool
    • Enterotoxin similar to shiga toxin
  17. Campylobactoriosis may develop into ___ ___ ___ from the immune sys attacking the body's own nerves.
    Guillain-Barre Syndromw
  18. The tx for campylobacteriosis is ___ but it can be prevented by what 2 methods?
    • Antibiotics
    • Good hand hygiene and food prep
  19. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli is an ___ gastroenteritis caused by what bacteria?
    • Invasive
    • Escherichia coli 0157:H7
  20. How is EHEC transmitted?
    Raw ground beef, raw milk, juice, sprouts, lettuce, salami, contaminated water
  21. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is caused by what toxin and causes what S&S?
    • Cytotoxin
    • Hemorrhagic diarrhea, abd cramping, possible kidney failure
  22. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli is prevalent amongst what 3 grps but can be prevented by what methods?
    • Older adults, young children, immunocompromised
    • Gd hand hygiene, cook foods thoroughly, wash fruits & veggies, avoid unpasteurized milk
  23. How is an E. coli 0157:H7 infection treated?
    • Blood cell transfusions
    • Kidney dialysis
  24. What (invasive/noninvasive) form of gastroenteritis is caused by Shingella sonnei?
    • Invasive
    • Shingellosis
  25. Shingellosis targets what organisms and is transmitted how?
    • Humans and primates
    • Contaminated water/food (esp eggs, veggies, shellfish and dairy)
  26. How does shingellosis attack the body and with what toxin?
    • Invades intestinal epithelial cells
    • Shiga toxin
  27. The S&S of shingellosis are what and can be treated how?
    • Fever, abd pain, bloody mucoid stool, Bacterial dysentary
    • Antibiotics however many strains resistant & fluid/salt resusitation
  28. There is no vaccine for shingellosis however it can be prevented by ___ ___ ___ and is prevalent in what environment?
    • Good hand hygiene
    • Daycare centers
  29. Various salmonella strains, particularly S. enterica in the enteritidis and tymphimurium serotypes cause what disease?
    Salmonellosis
  30. Salmonellosis is an (invasive/noninvasive) gastroenteritis transmitted primarily by what 2 things?
    • Invasive
    • Unpasteurized milk/poultry & raw produce
  31. The S&S of salmonellosis are what 4 things?
    • Fever
    • N/V/D
    • Dehydration
    • Abd cramping
  32. Salmonellosis is tx with what 2 things but can be prevented how?
    • Fluid replacement, Antibiotic therapy
    • Good hand hygiene & food prep
  33. Which invasive gastroenteritis that causes deep ulcers in the sm intestine, bloody stool, abd pain, systemic illness, fever, lethargy, delirium and a faint rash on the chest and abd.
    Typhoid fever
  34. Salmonella typhi causes which malady?
    Typhoid fever
  35. The S&S of typhoid fever are what?
    5-Fs --> flies, foods, fingers, feces, fomites
  36. Typhoid fever can be treated with ___ but can be prevented how?
    • Antibiotics - ceftriaxone
    • Avoid risky food or drink, vaccination
  37. What is the vaccination for typhoid fever made from?
    Dead S. typhi cells
  38. What is one characteristic that leads to the spread of typhoid?
    It has a high resistance to environmental conditions
  39. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are 2 causative agents of what disease?
    Vibriosis
  40. Vibriosis is what form of gastroenteritis found where?
    • Inflammatory 
    • Raw mollusks
  41. The S&S of vibriosis are what?
    Abd pain, N/V/D, fever, chills, necrotic skin lesions
  42. The tx for Vibrio parahaemolyticus is ___ while the tx for Vibrio vulnificus is ___ ___ ___.
    • Nothing
    • Immediate antibiotic therapy
  43. Vibriosis is most prevalent amongst what 4 gros but can be prevented how?
    • Those who eat raw shellfish, immunocompromised, liver disease, low stomach acid
    • Cook seafood thoroughly, Avoid raw oysters & clams
  44. V. parahaemolyticus is (more/less) virulent than V. vulnificus and is found where?
    • Less virulent 
    • Sea water
  45. Brucella abortus along with other brucella species cause ____ gastroenteritis transmitted by what 2 means?
    • Contaminated dairy products
    • Contaminated fluids thru skin abrasions
  46. Flu-like weakness, back ache, joint pain, high fever during the day and chills at night are characteristics of what infection?
    Brucellosis
  47. The most common tx for Brucellosis is?
    Antibiotics - doxycycline, gentamicin
  48. Brucellosis is prevalent amongst what grps but can be prevented how?
    • Farmers, vets, dairy/meat plant workers, those working w/lg ruminant animals
    • Avoid raw dairy, cook meat thoroughly, wear gloves
  49. Listeria monocytogenes causes ___ which is a form of ___ gastroenteritis.
    • Listeria
    • Inflammatory
  50. Listeriosis is transmitted by what means and causes what S&S?
    • Food contaminated by fecal matter
    • Diarrhea, fever, abd cramps, malaise, jaundice
  51. Listeriosis is prevalent in what grps and tx how?
    • Newborns, pregnant women, elderly, immunocompromised
    • Antibiotics - Ampicillin
  52. Spread of Listeria monocytogenes can by prevented how?
    Gd hand washing, Proper food preservation
  53. If Listeria monocytogenes crosses the blood brain barrier it can cause what disease?
    Meningoencephalitis
  54. T or F: Listeriosis bacteria crosses the placental barrier and can cause a uteral infection?
    True
  55. The causative agent of the ___ gastroenteritis, Pseudomembranous colitis is ___ ___.
    • Inflammatory
    • Clostridium difficile
  56. Pseudomembranous colitis is transmitted how and can be treated with what?
    • Indirectly fr contaminated hands or materials
    • Anticlostridial antibiotics like metronidazole, vancomycin
  57. Clostridium difficile infection presents how?
    With watery diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, dehydration, abd pain
  58. Clostridium difficile delivers what 2 toxins that have what effect?
    • Enterotoxin - Causes fluid loss
    • Cytotoxin - Causes further mucosal injury
  59. Pseudomembranous colitis is prevalent amongst  what 2 grps?
    • Elderly
    • Those who have been on antibiotics for prolonged time for another illness
  60. What 2 methods can be used to prevent pseudomembranous colitis?
    • Good hand hygiene
    • Keep bathrooms & kitchens disinfected
  61. ETEC stands for ___ ___ ___ and is most commonly known as ___ ___.
    • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
    • Traveler's diarrhea
  62. EPEC is the abbreviation for ___ ___ ___ and is an important cause of ___ in ___.
    • Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
    • Diarrhea in infants
  63. ETEC/EPEC is caused by contaminated ___ / ___ and presents how?
    • Food or water
    • NVD, fever, abd cramping
  64. ETEC/EPEC are what form of gastroenteritis?
    Inflammatory
  65. What 2 types of enterotoxins are related to ETEC/EPEC?
    • Heat labile
    • Heat stable
  66. ETEC and EPEC is treated how but can be prevented by avoiding what?
    • Usually resolves on its own or rifaximin
    • Suspect foods & untreated water
  67. Botulism is a form of ___ gastroenteritis is transmitted what four ways?
    • Noninflammatory 
    • Sealed cans or jars
    • Contaminated wounds
    • Honey
    • Consuming spores
  68. ___ ___ causes botulism which presents w/what 5 basic S&S?
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • Diff swallowing, Slurred speech, blurred vision Diff breathing, Flaccid paralysis
  69. What kind of toxin causes the S&S related to botulism?
    Neurotoxin
  70. What is tx for botulism?
    • Antitoxin
    • Breathing assistance
  71. What are the best ways to prevent botulism?
    • Gd home canning practices
    • Storing food properly
    • Avoid giving infants honey
  72. Types A,B & E botulism cause ___ ___ ___ while Type E is most associated with ___ ___.
    • Most human disease
    • Food borne transmission
  73. Food poisoning is a form of ___ gastroenteritis caused by ___ ___.
    • Noninflammatory 
    • Bacillus cereus
  74. Bacillus cereus is spread by a what means but can be prevented how?
    • Meat, cream sauces, starchy food ie rice
    • Avoiding suspect foods
  75. If contaminated meats or cream sauces are consumed Bacillus cereus causes ___ but if the starchy foods are consumed the result is ___.
    • Diarrhea
    • Vomiting
  76. Food poisoning is assoc w/what type of toxin?
    Enterotoxin
  77. Cholera is a form of ___ gastroenteritis that is caused by ___ ___.
    • Inflammatory
    • Vibrio cholerae
  78. Cholera is transmitted via contaminated ___ or ___ but can be prevented by taking what precautions?
    • Food or water
    • Gd sanitation, Water treatment
  79. The S&S of a Vibrio cholerae infection include what?
    • Loss of fluid & eletrolytes
    • Eyes gray & sunk in
    • Skin wrinkled, dry & cold
    • NVD
    • Muscle cramping
    • Blood thickening
    • Urine production ceases
    • Shock
    • Coma
  80. What enterotoxin is associated with cholera?
    Cholera toxin
  81. What methods are used to treat cholera?
    • Tetracycline
    • Fluid resusitation
    • Salt & glucose replenishment
  82. Clostridial food poisoning is a form of ____ gastroenteritis caused by ___ ___.
    • Noninflammatory
    • Clostridium perfringens
  83. Clostridium perfringens bacteria is transmitted via what 2 means?
    • Protein rich foods
    • Spores survive cooking
  84. The S&S of Clostridial food poisoning are what and can be treated how?
    • Abd cramping & watery dairrhea
    • The usually resolve on their own
  85. In order to prevent the spread of Clostridial perfringens we can do what 2 things?
    • Gd hand hygiene
    • Avoid suspect foods
  86. Staphylococcal Food Poisoning is a form of ___ gastroenteritis that is caused by ___ ___.
    • Noninflammatory
    • Staphylococcus aureus
  87. Staphylococcal food poisoning is transmitted via what means?
    • Protein rich foods
    • Ham
    • Contaminated dairy
    • Boils or abscesses
  88. Why is ham a big transmission factor for Staph aureus?
    B/c Staph aureus  is salt tolerant
  89. The S&S of staphylococcal food poisoning are ___ ___, ___ & ___.  These S&S are treated how?
    • Abd cramping
    • NVD
    • Prostration
    • Usually resolve on their own
  90. Staphylococcal food poisoning is associated w/what kind of toxin but can be prevented how?
    • Enterotoxin
    • Good hand hygiene, Avoid suspect foods
  91. Trench mouth is an ___ disease also known by what 2 names?
    • Oral
    • Vincent's infection
    • Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)
  92. Explain how trench mouth functions.
    Acute gingivitis where spirochete & fusiform bacteria directly invade underlying tissues leading to bone loss
  93. Trench mouth is caused by what?
    • Bacteroids
    • Fusobacterium
    • Treponema
  94. Trench mouth causes what 3 S&S?
    • Painful bleeding gums
    • Ulcerations
    • Swelling
  95. Trench mouth is transmitted by ___ ___ __, treated w/___ & prevented by what 2 methods?
    • Normal indigenous microbiota
    • Antibiotics
    • Gd oral hygiene & reg dental visits
  96. Periodontitis is a disease of what?
    Soft tissue and bone supporting the teeth
  97. The causative agents of periodontitis are what 4 bacteria species?
    • Actinobacillus
    • Porphyromonas gingivalis
    • Bacteroids forsynthus
    • Treponema denticola
  98. Swollen tender bright red gums that are pulled away from the teeth causing new spaces between the teeth are S&S of what oral disease?
    Periodontitis
  99. Periodontitis is treated how but can be prevented by taking what measures?
    • Cleaning pockets of bacteria
    • Gd oral hygiene / reg dental visits
  100. Periodontitis results fr untreated ___ and can have what effect on pregnant women?
    • Givgivitis
    • Can cause premature births
  101. What causes gingivitis to develop?
    Plaque and bacteria multiply and build up between teeth and gums
  102. Bacteroids, fusobacterium, porphyromonas, prevotella, eikenella, peptostreptococcus and treponema can all cause what oral disease?
    Gingivitis
  103. What 2 toxins & enzymes are secreted to cause a gingivitis infection?
    • Collagenase
    • Hyaluronidase
  104. Swollen, soft, red bleeding gums are often caused by ___.
    Gingivitis
  105. Gingivitis can be treated by what means and prevented by what 2 methods?
    • Cleaning of teeth to remove plaque
    • Gd oral hygiene, reg dental exams

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