Alcamo's Ch11 Diseases
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The causative agent for gastric ulcer disease is ___ ___.
Helicobactor pylori is transmitted how?
- Contaminated food or water
- Saliva (direct or indirect)
What disease is characterized by aching/burning abd pain, N/V, bloating and bloody vomit &/or stool?
Gastric Ulcer Disease
What toxin is created by H. Pylori?
Tx for gastric ulcer disease is a combination of what 2 things?
Antibiotics and antacids
Explain the steps in gastric ulcer disease.
- Bacteria attaches to stomach wall
- Secretes urea, digesting urease producing ammonia
- Ammonia neutralizes acid around infection
- Ammonia & cytotoxin destroy mucus secreting cells
- 0.6-12 cm ulcer appears
Gastric ulcer disease which belongs to what class of gastroenteritis can be prevented how?
- Good hygiene & not sharing utensils or glasses
Yersiniosis is a form of ____ gastroenteritis that is caused by ___ ___.
- Yersinia enterocolitica
Yersinia enterocolitica causes ___ and is transmitted in what ways?
- Consumption of contaminated food that came in contact w/infected domestic animals,
- Raw or undercooked pork products, Contaminated water or milk
Y. enterocolitica causes destruction of the ____ which creates what S&S?
- Diarrhea & severe abd pain
Tx for yersiniosis is either ___ or ___ for severe or prolonged cases.
Yersinia enterocolitica is most prevalent in ___ but can be prevented how?
- By avoiding raw or undercooked pork & good hand hygiene
Campylobacteriosis is classified as a ____ gastroenteritis and caused by ___ ___.
- Campylobactor jejuni
Campylobactor jejuni causes what malady and is transmitted how?
- Exposure to contaminated food or water
How does campylobacteriosis effect the body?
Bacterial cells colonize in the sm and lg intestine
What are the S&S of a Campylobactor jejuni infection and what toxins cause them?
- Diarrhea, fever and bloody stool
- Enterotoxin similar to shiga toxin
Campylobactoriosis may develop into ___ ___ ___ from the immune sys attacking the body's own nerves.
The tx for campylobacteriosis is ___ but it can be prevented by what 2 methods?
- Good hand hygiene and food prep
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli is an ___ gastroenteritis caused by what bacteria?
- Escherichia coli 0157:H7
How is EHEC transmitted?
Raw ground beef, raw milk, juice, sprouts, lettuce, salami, contaminated water
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is caused by what toxin and causes what S&S?
- Hemorrhagic diarrhea, abd cramping, possible kidney failure
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli is prevalent amongst what 3 grps but can be prevented by what methods?
- Older adults, young children, immunocompromised
- Gd hand hygiene, cook foods thoroughly, wash fruits & veggies, avoid unpasteurized milk
How is an E. coli 0157:H7 infection treated?
- Blood cell transfusions
- Kidney dialysis
What (invasive/noninvasive) form of gastroenteritis is caused by Shingella sonnei?
Shingellosis targets what organisms and is transmitted how?
- Humans and primates
- Contaminated water/food (esp eggs, veggies, shellfish and dairy)
How does shingellosis attack the body and with what toxin?
- Invades intestinal epithelial cells
- Shiga toxin
The S&S of shingellosis are what and can be treated how?
- Fever, abd pain, bloody mucoid stool, Bacterial dysentary
- Antibiotics however many strains resistant & fluid/salt resusitation
There is no vaccine for shingellosis however it can be prevented by ___ ___ ___ and is prevalent in what environment?
- Good hand hygiene
- Daycare centers
Various salmonella strains, particularly S. enterica in the enteritidis and tymphimurium serotypes cause what disease?
Salmonellosis is an (invasive/noninvasive) gastroenteritis transmitted primarily by what 2 things?
- Unpasteurized milk/poultry & raw produce
The S&S of salmonellosis are what 4 things?
- Abd cramping
Salmonellosis is tx with what 2 things but can be prevented how?
- Fluid replacement, Antibiotic therapy
- Good hand hygiene & food prep
Which invasive gastroenteritis that causes deep ulcers in the sm intestine, bloody stool, abd pain, systemic illness, fever, lethargy, delirium and a faint rash on the chest and abd.
Salmonella typhi causes which malady?
The S&S of typhoid fever are what?
5-Fs --> flies, foods, fingers, feces, fomites
Typhoid fever can be treated with ___ but can be prevented how?
- Antibiotics - ceftriaxone
- Avoid risky food or drink, vaccination
What is the vaccination for typhoid fever made from?
Dead S. typhi cells
What is one characteristic that leads to the spread of typhoid?
It has a high resistance to environmental conditions
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are 2 causative agents of what disease?
Vibriosis is what form of gastroenteritis found where?
- Raw mollusks
The S&S of vibriosis are what?
Abd pain, N/V/D, fever, chills, necrotic skin lesions
The tx for Vibrio parahaemolyticus is ___ while the tx for Vibrio vulnificus is ___ ___ ___.
- Immediate antibiotic therapy
Vibriosis is most prevalent amongst what 4 gros but can be prevented how?
- Those who eat raw shellfish, immunocompromised, liver disease, low stomach acid
- Cook seafood thoroughly, Avoid raw oysters & clams
V. parahaemolyticus is (more/less) virulent than V. vulnificus and is found where?
Brucella abortus along with other brucella species cause ____ gastroenteritis transmitted by what 2 means?
- Contaminated dairy products
- Contaminated fluids thru skin abrasions
Flu-like weakness, back ache, joint pain, high fever during the day and chills at night are characteristics of what infection?
The most common tx for Brucellosis is?
Antibiotics - doxycycline, gentamicin
Brucellosis is prevalent amongst what grps but can be prevented how?
- Farmers, vets, dairy/meat plant workers, those working w/lg ruminant animals
- Avoid raw dairy, cook meat thoroughly, wear gloves
Listeria monocytogenes causes ___ which is a form of ___ gastroenteritis.
Listeriosis is transmitted by what means and causes what S&S?
- Food contaminated by fecal matter
- Diarrhea, fever, abd cramps, malaise, jaundice
Listeriosis is prevalent in what grps and tx how?
- Newborns, pregnant women, elderly, immunocompromised
- Antibiotics - Ampicillin
Spread of Listeria monocytogenes can by prevented how?
Gd hand washing, Proper food preservation
If Listeria monocytogenes crosses the blood brain barrier it can cause what disease?
T or F: Listeriosis bacteria crosses the placental barrier and can cause a uteral infection?
The causative agent of the ___ gastroenteritis, Pseudomembranous colitis is ___ ___.
- Clostridium difficile
Pseudomembranous colitis is transmitted how and can be treated with what?
- Indirectly fr contaminated hands or materials
- Anticlostridial antibiotics like metronidazole, vancomycin
A Clostridium difficile infection presents how?
With watery diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, dehydration, abd pain
Clostridium difficile delivers what 2 toxins that have what effect?
- Enterotoxin - Causes fluid loss
- Cytotoxin - Causes further mucosal injury
Pseudomembranous colitis is prevalent amongst what 2 grps?
- Those who have been on antibiotics for prolonged time for another illness
What 2 methods can be used to prevent pseudomembranous colitis?
- Good hand hygiene
- Keep bathrooms & kitchens disinfected
ETEC stands for ___ ___ ___ and is most commonly known as ___ ___.
- Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
- Traveler's diarrhea
EPEC is the abbreviation for ___ ___ ___ and is an important cause of ___ in ___.
- Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
- Diarrhea in infants
ETEC/EPEC is caused by contaminated ___ / ___ and presents how?
- Food or water
- NVD, fever, abd cramping
ETEC/EPEC are what form of gastroenteritis?
What 2 types of enterotoxins are related to ETEC/EPEC?
ETEC and EPEC is treated how but can be prevented by avoiding what?
- Usually resolves on its own or rifaximin
- Suspect foods & untreated water
Botulism is a form of ___ gastroenteritis is transmitted what four ways?
- Sealed cans or jars
- Contaminated wounds
- Consuming spores
___ ___ causes botulism which presents w/what 5 basic S&S?
- Clostridium botulinum
- Diff swallowing, Slurred speech, blurred vision Diff breathing, Flaccid paralysis
What kind of toxin causes the S&S related to botulism?
What is tx for botulism?
- Breathing assistance
What are the best ways to prevent botulism?
- Gd home canning practices
- Storing food properly
- Avoid giving infants honey
Types A,B & E botulism cause ___ ___ ___ while Type E is most associated with ___ ___.
- Most human disease
- Food borne transmission
Food poisoning is a form of ___ gastroenteritis caused by ___ ___.
- Bacillus cereus
Bacillus cereus is spread by a what means but can be prevented how?
- Meat, cream sauces, starchy food ie rice
- Avoiding suspect foods
If contaminated meats or cream sauces are consumed Bacillus cereus causes ___ but if the starchy foods are consumed the result is ___.
Food poisoning is assoc w/what type of toxin?
Cholera is a form of ___ gastroenteritis that is caused by ___ ___.
- Vibrio cholerae
Cholera is transmitted via contaminated ___ or ___ but can be prevented by taking what precautions?
- Food or water
- Gd sanitation, Water treatment
The S&S of a Vibrio cholerae infection include what?
- Loss of fluid & eletrolytes
- Eyes gray & sunk in
- Skin wrinkled, dry & cold
- Muscle cramping
- Blood thickening
- Urine production ceases
What enterotoxin is associated with cholera?
What methods are used to treat cholera?
- Fluid resusitation
- Salt & glucose replenishment
Clostridial food poisoning is a form of ____ gastroenteritis caused by ___ ___.
- Clostridium perfringens
Clostridium perfringens bacteria is transmitted via what 2 means?
- Protein rich foods
- Spores survive cooking
The S&S of Clostridial food poisoning are what and can be treated how?
- Abd cramping & watery dairrhea
- The usually resolve on their own
In order to prevent the spread of Clostridial perfringens we can do what 2 things?
- Gd hand hygiene
- Avoid suspect foods
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning is a form of ___ gastroenteritis that is caused by ___ ___.
- Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcal food poisoning is transmitted via what means?
- Protein rich foods
- Contaminated dairy
- Boils or abscesses
Why is ham a big transmission factor for Staph aureus?
B/c Staph aureus is salt tolerant
The S&S of staphylococcal food poisoning are ___ ___, ___ & ___. These S&S are treated how?
- Abd cramping
- Usually resolve on their own
Staphylococcal food poisoning is associated w/what kind of toxin but can be prevented how?
- Good hand hygiene, Avoid suspect foods
Trench mouth is an ___ disease also known by what 2 names?
- Vincent's infection
- Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)
Explain how trench mouth functions.
Acute gingivitis where spirochete & fusiform bacteria directly invade underlying tissues leading to bone loss
Trench mouth is caused by what?
Trench mouth causes what 3 S&S?
- Painful bleeding gums
Trench mouth is transmitted by ___ ___ __, treated w/___ & prevented by what 2 methods?
- Normal indigenous microbiota
- Gd oral hygiene & reg dental visits
Periodontitis is a disease of what?
Soft tissue and bone supporting the teeth
The causative agents of periodontitis are what 4 bacteria species?
- Porphyromonas gingivalis
- Bacteroids forsynthus
- Treponema denticola
Swollen tender bright red gums that are pulled away from the teeth causing new spaces between the teeth are S&S of what oral disease?
Periodontitis is treated how but can be prevented by taking what measures?
- Cleaning pockets of bacteria
- Gd oral hygiene / reg dental visits
Periodontitis results fr untreated ___ and can have what effect on pregnant women?
- Can cause premature births
What causes gingivitis to develop?
Plaque and bacteria multiply and build up between teeth and gums
Bacteroids, fusobacterium, porphyromonas, prevotella, eikenella, peptostreptococcus and treponema can all cause what oral disease?
What 2 toxins & enzymes are secreted to cause a gingivitis infection?
Swollen, soft, red bleeding gums are often caused by ___.
Gingivitis can be treated by what means and prevented by what 2 methods?
- Cleaning of teeth to remove plaque
- Gd oral hygiene, reg dental exams
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