Card Set Information
Hardness is a measure of resistance to _____________.
In a stable atom, the number of protons is equal to the number of:
What is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust?
The silicate tetrahedron consists of:
Four Si and one O atom
Electron transfer is involved in this type of bonding:
Which of the following is a sulfide?
The mineral which effervesces in acid is:
What is not a part of the definition of a mineral?
Straight hairline grooves on cleavage faces, such as plagioclase feldspar are called:
_________ is determined by grinding a mineral to a fine powder and rubbing it on an unglazed poreclain square.
Fool's gold is an informal name for:
This type of acid is commonly used to identify minerals:
The Mohs Scale is used to measure:
Name a silicate
Diamond and graphite are polymorphs because they:
Have the same composition but a different crystal structure
Atoms are stable when they have this many electrons in their outer orbitals:
The most common elements in the Earth's crust
Oxygen and Silicon
The number of protons in an atom is the same as the ________ of an element
The most noticeable property of a mineral, but may be one of the least diagnostic properties:
The oxide of iron, characterized by a red brown streak is ________
A mineral with one direction of cleavage is:
The breakage of minerals along flat surfaces which follow planes of weakness in their crystal structure:
The property that best describes the relationship between the weight of a mineral and the weight of an equal volume of water:
True/False. Some mineral properties vary depending on the direction where they were measured.
These minerals can be hammered into thin sheets:
- are formed by two or more combined elements
- have the same properties of the chemicals elements from which they are formed.
True/False. The color of a mineral in different specimens will always be the same if the element responsible for the color appears in trace amounts within the mineral.
What type of bonding will atoms with 4 electrons in the outermost shell form?
Occur as minerals formed by a single element
What physical property is related to the way a mineral reflects light?
Unconfined minerals create _________
Well developed crystals
Minerals confined by other surrounding minerals create __________
Poorly developed or irregular crystals
Streak is useful in identifying:
Sulfides and Oxides
Texture of igneous rocks that are made up of rock and ash, welded together by a volcanic explosion.
A concordant pluton that is tabular or sheetlike:
Name an intermediate rock:
Igneous rocks with crystals too small to see (greater than 1 mm) have this texture:
Three minerals at the bottom of Bowen's Reaction series:
(Highest temp to lowest)
- Potassium feldspar
Volcanic rocks that display large crystals within a finer grained groundmass have this texture:
Sheet-like pluton that cuts across the structure of the country rock:
How do xenoliths form?
By being engulfed as unmelted blocks of surrounding rock within ascending magma
According to the rock cycle, what processes lead to the formation of an igneous rock?
Melting, cooling, and crystalization
- Predominance of quartz and feldspar
- Chemical comp rich in silica and alumina
- Main components in the continental crust
Aphantic rocks cool _______
The visually estimated percentage of dark minerals in a rock is the ___________
Name a mafic rock
Define: Mafic Rocks
Igneous rocks composed of dark-colored ferromagnesian minerals and some feldspar
Large crystals in an igneous rock indicate:
Igneous rocks with very large grains have this texture:
Igneous rocks that form by the cooling of lava on the Earth's surface are called:
Igneous rocks that form by cooling of magma inside the Earth are called:
Gas bubbles trapped in a rock are called:
The volcanic area located over a stationary continental hot spot
The Yellowstone caldera complex
Flat volcanic plains created by volcanism flowing from deep fisure in the lithosphere
Flood basalt provinces
What conditions enhance the lahar formation potential?
- Slope covered by pyroclastic debris
- Summit covered with snow or ice
- Torrential rain falling on loose pyroclastic debris
Volcanic feature developed on the continent at an ocean to continent subduction setting:
Continental volcanic arc
Volcanic bombs have a __________ because they were ejected while molten.
Rhyolitic magmas lead to explosive eruptions because:
- Gases are not easily released
- They have high viscosity
Volcanic feature that is Plinian eruption related:
- Pyroclastic flows
- Ash falls
The volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands are associated with this type of plate tectonic setting:
This type of lava or magma is least viscous and most likely to form a shield volcano:
The Cascade Range is this type of plate tectonic setting:
Ocean to Continent subduction
Viscocity of magma is controlled by what two factors?
- Chemical composition
A volcano is most likely to produce low viscocity flows if it has this composition:
Which type of lava or magma is most viscous?
Name the largest volcano in the solar system.
Which type of volcano is the most violent and explosive?
Composite cone and rhyolitic caldera complexes
Type of tectonic plate boundary associated with the "Ring of Fire":
Volcano that exploded, creating Crater Lake:
The main factor that controls how explosive a volcanic eruption will be:
An example of a stratovolcano:
Mt. St. Helens
When basaltic lava flows into a body of water:
The two most abundant gases erupted from volcanoes:
Water and Carbon Dioxide
Volcano formed by many thin flows of basalt with gentle slopes and a very broad base:
Siliceous sedimentary rock which often replaces limestone. It is also called microcrystalline quartz:
Which process is not involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks?
List from finest grain to coarsest grain:
silt, clay, sand, gravel
Fan-shaped deposits of sediment that form along the base of a mountain range
Dissolution of this type of rock produces karst topography, which is characterized by caverns, sinkholes and disappearing streams.
In the southeastern U.S., biotite and amiphibole in granite is likely to weather in what way?
Weathered or "rotten" rock in which feldspars have weathered to form soft clays.
When a large body of plutonic rock becomes exposed and breaks off in sheets, it is called:
Red soils in tropical areas:
- Are called lateritic soils
- Have been produced by extensive chem weathering
- Result from oxidation of ferromagnesian minerals
Which mineral is most stable at the earth's surface conditions?
Dominiant mineral in rock salt:
The highest grade of coal:
Detrial or terrigenous sediment 1/16 to 2 mm in diameter
Dominant mineral in arkose:
Sedimentary rocks composed of broken fragments from weathering of rocks and transported to the depositional basin.
Detrital or terrigenous
Name an evaporite.
Chemical sedimentary rocks that form from the evaporation of saline water are called:
Sedimentary rock made of angular gravel
Loose sediment becomes rock through the process of:
Name an environment that is not transitional:
Kaolinite is formed by this type of weathering:
List types of physical weathering:
- Thermal expansion
- Frost wedging
- Crystal growth
Mineral that is soluable and subject to dissolution in acidic waters.
Mineral likely to weather by oxidation.
Largest earthquakes in American history
1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri
Earthquake wave that will travel only through solid material
How did the first seismograph record earthquakes?
Dropping metal balls
Most large earthquakes occur here:
In narrow zones near plate boundaries, such as the circum-Pacific belt
First waves to be detected following an earthquake with the highest velocity
Charleston, South Carolina
Most damaging earthquake in southeastern, U.S. in 1886
Underground source of earthquake
Earthquakes are common around the edges of this ocean:
This waves moves with shearing motion and cannot travel through liquids
Small earthquakes in Georgia have been associated with the presence of...
Places where earthquakes have occurred in Georgia
Clarks Hill Reservoir
Richard B. Russell Lake
Point on the ground surface directly above the focus
How many seismic station locations are needed to locate the epicenter?
Damage from the 1964 Alaska earthquake was severe because of...
Scale that most accurately represents severity of earthquake
Last waves to arrive
Every grade on the Richter scale increases
New Madrid earthquake
Strike and Dip
Two parameters used to describe spatial orientation of a sedimentary bed
All beds dip outward
Younger rocks at the center
Hanging wall goes up
Terrain undergoes compression
Folds result from ___________ stress and _______ behavior
Convergent plate boundaries have what type of fault?
Stress that elongates bodies, pulling them apart
Limbs dip toward axial plane
Youngest rocks at the center
What stress would produce normal faulting?
Hanging wall moves down
Shaped like an "S"
San Andreas fault
Angle at which an inclined bed of rock slopes down into the grond
Compass direction of the line that is produced by the intersection of an inclined layer of rock
Differential stresses that shortens a rock body
Deformation along strike slip faults