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2013-05-02 13:07:46

Geology Final
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  1. Hardness is a measure of resistance to _____________.
  2. In a stable atom, the number of protons is equal to the number of:
  3. What is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust?
  4. The silicate tetrahedron consists of:
    Four Si and one O atom
  5. Electron transfer is involved in this type of bonding:
  6. Which of the following is a sulfide?
  7. The mineral which effervesces in acid is:
  8. What is not a part of the definition of a mineral?
  9. Straight hairline grooves on cleavage faces, such as plagioclase feldspar are called:
  10. _________ is determined by grinding a mineral to a fine powder and rubbing it on an unglazed poreclain square.
  11. Fool's gold is an informal name for:
  12. This type of acid is commonly used to identify minerals:
    Hydrochloric acid
  13. The Mohs Scale is used to measure:
  14. Name a silicate
  15. Diamond and graphite are polymorphs because they:
    Have the same composition but a different crystal structure
  16. Atoms are stable when they have this many electrons in their outer orbitals:
  17. The most common elements in the Earth's crust
    Oxygen and Silicon
  18. The number of protons in an atom is the same as the ________ of an element
    Atomic number
  19. The most noticeable property of a mineral, but may be one of the least diagnostic properties:
  20. The oxide of iron, characterized by a red brown streak is ________
  21. A mineral with one direction of cleavage is:
    Muscovite mica
  22. The breakage of minerals along flat surfaces which follow planes of weakness in their crystal structure:
  23. The property that best describes the relationship between the weight of a mineral and the weight of an equal volume of water:
    Specific gravity
  24. True/False.  Some mineral properties vary depending on the direction where they were measured.
  25. These minerals can be hammered into thin sheets:
    Malleable minerals
  26. Chemical compounds________
    - are formed by two or more combined elements

    - have the same properties of the chemicals elements from which they are formed.
  27. True/False. The color of a mineral in different specimens will always be the same if the element responsible for the color appears in trace amounts within the mineral.
  28. What type of bonding will atoms with 4 electrons in the outermost shell form?
  29. Native elements_______
    Occur as minerals formed by a single element
  30. What physical property is related to the way a mineral reflects light?
  31. Unconfined minerals create _________
    Well developed crystals
  32. Minerals confined by other surrounding minerals create __________
    Poorly developed or irregular crystals
  33. Streak is useful in identifying:
    Sulfides and Oxides
  34. Texture of igneous rocks that are made up of rock and ash, welded together by a volcanic explosion.
  35. A concordant pluton that is tabular or sheetlike:
  36. Name an intermediate rock:
  37. Igneous rocks with crystals too small to see (greater than 1 mm) have this texture:
  38. Three minerals at the bottom of Bowen's Reaction series:
    (Highest temp to lowest)

    • - Potassium feldspar
    • - Muscovite
    • - Quartz
  39. Volcanic rocks that display large crystals within a finer grained groundmass have this texture:
  40. Sheet-like pluton that cuts across the structure of the country rock:
  41. How do xenoliths form?
    By being engulfed as unmelted blocks of surrounding rock within ascending magma
  42. According to the rock cycle, what processes lead to the formation of an igneous rock?
    Melting, cooling, and crystalization
  43. Felsic rocks:
    • - Predominance of quartz and feldspar
    • - Chemical comp rich in silica and alumina
    • - Main components in the continental crust
  44. Aphantic rocks cool _______
  45. The visually estimated percentage of dark minerals in a rock is the ___________
    Color index
  46. Name a mafic rock
  47. Define: Mafic Rocks
    Igneous rocks composed of dark-colored ferromagnesian minerals and some feldspar
  48. Large crystals in an igneous rock indicate:
    Slow cooling
  49. Igneous rocks with very large grains have this texture:
  50. Igneous rocks that form by the cooling of lava on the Earth's surface are called:
  51. Igneous rocks that form by cooling of magma inside the Earth are called:
  52. Gas bubbles trapped in a rock are called:
  53. The volcanic area located over a stationary continental hot spot
    The Yellowstone caldera complex
  54. Flat volcanic plains created by volcanism flowing from deep fisure in the lithosphere
    Flood basalt provinces
  55. What conditions enhance the lahar formation potential?
    • - Slope covered by pyroclastic debris
    • - Summit covered with snow or ice
    • - Torrential rain falling on loose pyroclastic debris
  56. Volcanic feature developed on the continent at an ocean to continent subduction setting:
    Continental volcanic arc
  57. Volcanic bombs have a __________ because they were ejected while molten.
    Streamlined shape
  58. Rhyolitic magmas lead to explosive eruptions because:
    • - Gases are not easily released
    • - They have high viscosity
  59. Volcanic feature that is Plinian eruption related:
    • - Pyroclastic flows
    • - Ash falls
  60. The volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands are associated with this type of plate tectonic setting:
    Hot spot
  61. This type of lava or magma is least viscous and most likely to form a shield volcano:
  62. The Cascade Range is this type of plate tectonic setting:
    Ocean to Continent subduction
  63. Viscocity of magma is controlled by what two factors?
    • - Temperature
    • - Chemical composition
  64. A volcano is most likely to produce low viscocity flows if it has this composition:
  65. Which type of lava or magma is most viscous?
  66. Name the largest volcano in the solar system.
    Olympus Mons
  67. Which type of volcano is the most violent and explosive?
    Composite cone and rhyolitic caldera complexes
  68. Type of tectonic plate boundary associated with the "Ring of Fire":
  69. Volcano that exploded, creating Crater Lake:
    Mt. Mazama
  70. The main factor that controls how explosive a volcanic eruption will be:
    SiO2 (silica) content
  71. An example of a stratovolcano:
    Mt. St. Helens
  72. When basaltic lava flows into a body of water:
    Pillow lava
  73. The two most abundant gases erupted from volcanoes:
    Water and Carbon Dioxide
  74. Volcano formed by many thin flows of basalt with gentle slopes and a very broad base:
    Shield volcano
  75. Siliceous sedimentary rock which often replaces limestone.  It is also called microcrystalline quartz:
  76. Which process is not involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks?
  77. List from finest grain to coarsest grain:

    silt, clay, sand, gravel
    • - Clay
    • - Silt
    • - Sand
    • - Gravel
  78. Fan-shaped deposits of sediment that form along the base of a mountain range
    Alluvial fans
  79. Dissolution of this type of rock produces karst topography, which is characterized by caverns, sinkholes and disappearing streams.
  80. In the southeastern U.S., biotite and amiphibole in granite is likely to weather in what way?
    • - Hydrolysis
    • - Oxidation
  81. Weathered or "rotten" rock in which feldspars have weathered to form soft clays.
  82. When a large body of plutonic rock becomes exposed and breaks off in sheets, it is called:
  83. Red soils in tropical areas:
    • - Are called lateritic soils
    • - Have been produced by extensive chem weathering
    • - Result from oxidation of ferromagnesian minerals
  84. Which mineral is most stable at the earth's surface conditions?
  85. Dominiant mineral in rock salt:
  86. The highest grade of coal:
  87. Detrial or terrigenous sediment 1/16 to 2 mm in diameter
  88. Dominant mineral in arkose:
  89. Sedimentary rocks composed of broken fragments from weathering of rocks and transported to the depositional basin.
    Detrital or terrigenous
  90. Name an evaporite.
  91. Chemical sedimentary rocks that form from the evaporation of saline water are called:
  92. Sedimentary rock made of angular gravel
  93. Loose sediment becomes rock through the process of:
  94. Name an environment that is not transitional:
    Continental shelf

    • Transitional:
    • Beach
    • Lagoon
    • Estuary
    • Delta
  95. Kaolinite is formed by this type of weathering:
  96. List types of physical weathering:
    • - Exfoliation
    • - Thermal expansion
    • - Frost wedging
    • - Crystal growth
  97. Mineral that is soluable and subject to dissolution in acidic waters.
  98. Mineral likely to weather by oxidation.
  99. Largest earthquakes in American history
    1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri
  100. S Wave
    Earthquake wave that will travel only through solid material
  101. How did the first seismograph record earthquakes?
    Dropping metal balls
  102. Most large earthquakes occur here:
    In narrow zones near plate boundaries, such as the circum-Pacific belt
  103. P waves
    First waves to be detected following an earthquake with the highest velocity
  104. Charleston, South Carolina
    Most damaging earthquake in southeastern, U.S. in 1886
  105. Focus
    Underground source of earthquake
  106. Earthquakes are common around the edges of this ocean:
  107. This waves moves with shearing motion and cannot travel through liquids
    S waves
  108. Small earthquakes in Georgia have been associated with the presence of...
  109. Places where earthquakes have occurred in Georgia
    • Lake Sinclair
    • Clarks Hill Reservoir
    • Richard B. Russell Lake
    • Norris Lake
  110. Epicenter
    Point on the ground surface directly above the focus
  111. How many seismic station locations are needed to locate the epicenter?
  112. Damage from the 1964 Alaska earthquake was severe because of...
    Ground liquefication
  113. Compressional wave
    P waves
  114. Moment magnitude 
    Scale that most accurately represents severity of earthquake
  115. Surface waves
    Last waves to arrive
  116. Every grade on the Richter scale increases
    32 times
  117. New Madrid earthquake 
  118. Strike and Dip
    Two parameters used to describe spatial orientation of a sedimentary bed
  119. Dome
    All beds dip outward

    Younger rocks at the center
  120. Reverse fault
    Hanging wall goes up

    Terrain undergoes compression
  121. Folds result from ___________ stress and _______ behavior
    Compressional stress

    Ductile behavior
  122. Convergent plate boundaries have what type of fault?
  123. Stress that elongates bodies, pulling them apart
  124. Syncline
    Limbs dip toward axial plane

    Youngest rocks at the center
  125. What stress would produce normal faulting?
  126. Thrust
    Hanging wall moves down 
  127. Recumbent fold
    Shaped like an "S"
  128. San Andreas fault
  129. Dip
    Angle at which an inclined bed of rock slopes down into the grond
  130. Strike
    Compass direction of the line that is produced by the intersection of an inclined layer of rock 
  131. Differential stresses that shortens a rock body
    Compressional stress
  132. Deformation along strike slip faults