Cardiovascular system part 1

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Wesleypjones
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212882
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Cardiovascular system part 1
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2013-04-11 17:33:42
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Cardiovascular system part
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Cardiovascular system part 1
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  1. blood
    is a connective tissue composed of a liquid extracellular matrix called blood plasma that dissolves and suspends various cells and cell fragments
  2. blood plasma
    a straw coloured liquid. 91.5% water and 8.5% solutes mostly proteins
  3. plasma proteins
    those proteins confined only to the blood.  They play a role in maintaining proper blood osmotic pressure, which is an important factor in the exchange of fluids across capillary walls
  4. albumins
    54% of blood plasma.  Smallest protein in blood plasma created by the liver. Functions as transport proteins for several steroid proteins and for fatty acids
  5. globulins
    produced by the live and plasma cells.  Antibodes help attack viruses and bacteria.  Alpha and Beta of these cells transport iron, lipids and fat soluble vitamins.
  6. Fibrinogen
    produced by the liver and play essential role in blood clotting
  7. red blood cells
    whole cells also known as Erythrocytes.  Hemaglobin within these cells transports most of the oxygen and part of the carbon dioxide in the blood
  8. white blood cells
    whole cells that combat pathogens and other foreign substances that enter the body also known as leukoctyes
  9. platelets
    cell fragments contain many vesicles but no nucleaus.  They form plugs in homeostasis, release chemicals that promote vascular spasm and blood clotting
  10. Hematocrit
    the percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs
  11. hemopoiesis
    the process by which the formed elements of blood develop.  Red bone marrow becomes the primary site.
  12. red bone marrow
    is highly vascularized connective tissue located in the spaces between trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.  It is present mainly in the bones of the axial skeleton
  13. pluripotent stem cells
    about a small percent of red bone marrow cells are derived from mesenchyme and are called this. They can develop many different types of cells.
  14. progenitor cells
    during hemopoiesis, some of the myeloid stem cells differentiate into these.  They are not capable of reproducing themselves.  They produce the mature elements of blood
  15. precursor cells or blasts
    are the next generation of cells. Over several cell divisions they develop into the actual formed elements of blood.
  16. hemopoietic growth factors
    hormones that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular progenitor cells
  17. Erythropoietin or EPO
    increases the number of red blood cell precursors.  It is produced primarily by cells in the kidneys
  18. thrombopoietin or TPO
    is a hormone produced by the liver that stimulates the formation of platelets from megakaryocytes
  19. Cytokines
    regulate the development of different blood cell types.  They are small glycoproteins that are typically produced by cells such as red bone marrow. They generally act as local hormone. They stimulate the proliferation of progenitor cells in red bone marrow and regulate the activities of cells involved in non specific defences (such as phagocytosis) and immune responses.
  20. hemoglobin
    oxygen carrying proteins found in red blood cell cytosol.  They are formed by the nucleus before it leaves the cell
  21. RBC anatomy
    RBCs are biconcave discs.  Their plasma membrane is both strong and flexible, which allows them to deform without rupturing as they squeeze through narrow capillaries.  They lack a nucleus and other organelles and can neither reproduce nor carry on extensive metabolic activities
  22. globin
    a protein in the molecule hemoglobin composed of four polypeptide chains.  a ring called a neme is attached to each chain.  At the centre of each neme is an iron ion that can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule. allowing each hemoglobin to bind 4 oxygen molecules
  23. Erythropoiesis
    production of RBCs- starts in the red bone marrow with a precursor cell called proerythroblast.  The cell divides several times producing cells that begin to synthesize hemoglobin
  24. retculocyte
    a cell near the end of development sequence ejects its nucleus and becomes this.
  25. Hypoxia
    cellular oxygen deficiency

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