scs 13 part 1

Card Set Information

scs 13 part 1
2013-04-11 17:42:25
scs 13

scs test 3
Show Answers:

  1. Much of what we know about neuro function comes from....
    examining of patients who have suffered a stroke or neurological disorders and the effects of behavoir including communication
  2. current brain-imaging techniques can be categorized on the basis of....
    whether they depict brain anatomy or reflect brain function-pysiology.
  3. brain structure is accessed by what?
    specialized x-rays  and other imaging techniques
  4. brain function is indicated indirectly how?
    by indirectly measuring electrical, biochemical, or physiologic characteristics of the nervous system
  5. what type of technique is computerized tomography? What does it image?
    an x-ray technique for imagaing brain structure
  6. the denser a tissue, the more radiation it absorbs. What will this look like on the x-ray?
    A lighter image such as bone- very dense and shows up white in the x-ray.
  7. whats the difference in planar x-rays and CT?
    a CT image is constructed from numerous scans of the brain resulting in a detailed 3D image
  8. CT scanners can image slices of the target structure T or F?
  9. what are advantages of CT scanning?
    • 1-short imaging times
    • 2-widespread availability of the technology
    • 3-excellent differentiation of tissues
  10. CT is usually used to
    diagnose tumors, cerebrovascular disease, head trauma, and cerebral atrophy
  11. MRI stands for
    magnetic resonance imaging
  12. this imaging technique takes advantage of cellular basis of tissue
  13. over 70% of brain tissue is comprised of
  14. during this technique, a patient is exposed to a super powerful magnet causing hydrogen atoms to line up with the magnetic field.
  15. A downfall of MRI is that it uses radiation T or F
    false- it does not use radiation
  16. MRI can disringuish grey and white matter, CSF, and vascular structures T or F
    true-it can differentiate soft tissues
  17. we can see plaques in the tissues using MRI that occur with MS T or F
  18. what are some downfalls of MRI
    • expensive, and imaging takes longer
    • some cannot undergo bc cochlear implants, aneurysm clips, pacemakers
  19. what are techniques for imaging brain function based on?
    blood flow within the brain, brain metabolism of oxygen and glucose, electrical properties of the brain
  20. fMRI is an idex of what?
    changes in the oxygen content of the blood in a particular brain area or region
  21. what system is the most important in regulating and controlling movement?
  22. what are the divisions of the nervous system?
    CNS and PNS
  23. the CNS consists of
    the brain itself and and spinal cord
  24. the PNS consist of
    cranial nerves and spinal nerves
  25. the PNS is  subdivided into
    somatic and autonomic systems
  26. the brain weighs about
  27. what are the two major types of cells in the brain
    glial and neurons
  28. these cells bring nutrients from blood vessels to each neuron and remove waste products
    glial cells
  29. what are the most common type of glial cells
  30. what cells from myelin around nerve cells
    oligodendrocytes and schwann cells
  31. these help destroy harmful organisms by engulfing them
  32. these cells, unlike others, are able to divide and reproduce throughout their lives
    glial cells
  33. these receive, transmit, and process to, from and within the nervous system
  34. how many neurons are in the cns?
    about 100 billion
  35. whats the basic makeup of a neuron?
    a soma or body, dendrites, and an axon all bounded by a cell membrane
  36. it is within the ______ that the major metabolic activity of the neuron takes place.
  37. these secrete proteins and sugars
    golgi apparatus
  38. branching off the cell bodies are  short projections called ____  which nerve inpulses toward the cell body
  39. extanding from the cell bodies are _____ which transmits nerve impulses away from the cell body
  40. axons from at a small bump called the
    axon hillock
  41. most axons in the cns are wrapped in
  42. myelin serves to
    insulate the axons and helps to increase speed of nerve conduction
  43. nodes of ranvier are
    interuptions in the myeln sheath. these nodes are involved in speeding up nerve transmission as the impulse jumps from one node to the next
  44. the axon divdes into
    terminal branches-telodendria, then into terminal buttons
  45. where are the neurotransmitter chamicals located?
    the vesicles in the terminal buttons
  46. what is the site of communication with other cells?
    the terminal buttons filled with neurotransmitters
  47. between nerve cells is a tiny gap called
    synaptic cleft-synapse
  48. pathways are either sensory-_________, or motor-_________
    afferent, efferent
  49. afferent pathways transmit information how?
    from sensory receptors to the cns
  50. efferent pathways transmit information how?
    from the cns toward muscles and glands
  51. unipolar neurons have _____ process and bipolar have ________
    one; two processes
  52. most neurons in the ns are multipolar T or F?
  53. these cause movement to occur
    these carry sensory info to the brain
    • motor-efferent
    • sensory-afferent
  54. interneurons do what
    connect neurons to each other
  55. most neurons in the cns are
  56. what are some neurotransmitter types?
    dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine