scs 13 part 1
Card Set Information
scs 13 part 1
scs test 3
Much of what we know about neuro function comes from....
examining of patients who have suffered a stroke or neurological disorders and the effects of behavoir including communication
current brain-imaging techniques can be categorized on the basis of....
whether they depict brain anatomy or reflect brain function-pysiology.
brain structure is accessed by what?
specialized x-rays and other imaging techniques
brain function is indicated indirectly how?
by indirectly measuring electrical, biochemical, or physiologic characteristics of the nervous system
what type of technique is computerized tomography? What does it image?
an x-ray technique for imagaing brain structure
the denser a tissue, the more radiation it absorbs. What will this look like on the x-ray?
A lighter image such as bone- very dense and shows up white in the x-ray.
whats the difference in planar x-rays and CT?
a CT image is constructed from numerous scans of the brain resulting in a detailed 3D image
CT scanners can image slices of the target structure T or F?
what are advantages of CT scanning?
1-short imaging times
2-widespread availability of the technology
3-excellent differentiation of tissues
CT is usually used to
diagnose tumors, cerebrovascular disease, head trauma, and cerebral atrophy
MRI stands for
magnetic resonance imaging
this imaging technique takes advantage of cellular basis of tissue
over 70% of brain tissue is comprised of
during this technique, a patient is exposed to a super powerful magnet causing hydrogen atoms to line up with the magnetic field.
A downfall of MRI is that it uses radiation T or F
false- it does not use radiation
MRI can disringuish grey and white matter, CSF, and vascular structures T or F
true-it can differentiate soft tissues
we can see plaques in the tissues using MRI that occur with MS T or F
what are some downfalls of MRI
expensive, and imaging takes longer
some cannot undergo bc cochlear implants, aneurysm clips, pacemakers
what are techniques for imaging brain function based on?
blood flow within the brain, brain metabolism of oxygen and glucose, electrical properties of the brain
fMRI is an idex of what?
changes in the oxygen content of the blood in a particular brain area or region
what system is the most important in regulating and controlling movement?
what are the divisions of the nervous system?
CNS and PNS
the CNS consists of
the brain itself and and spinal cord
the PNS consist of
cranial nerves and spinal nerves
the PNS is subdivided into
somatic and autonomic systems
the brain weighs about
what are the two major types of cells in the brain
glial and neurons
these cells bring nutrients from blood vessels to each neuron and remove waste products
what are the most common type of glial cells
what cells from myelin around nerve cells
oligodendrocytes and schwann cells
these help destroy harmful organisms by engulfing them
these cells, unlike others, are able to divide and reproduce throughout their lives
these receive, transmit, and process to, from and within the nervous system
how many neurons are in the cns?
about 100 billion
whats the basic makeup of a neuron?
a soma or body, dendrites, and an axon all bounded by a cell membrane
it is within the ______ that the major metabolic activity of the neuron takes place.
these secrete proteins and sugars
branching off the cell bodies are short projections called ____ which nerve inpulses toward the cell body
extanding from the cell bodies are _____ which transmits nerve impulses away from the cell body
axons from at a small bump called the
most axons in the cns are wrapped in
myelin serves to
insulate the axons and helps to increase speed of nerve conduction
nodes of ranvier are
interuptions in the myeln sheath. these nodes are involved in speeding up nerve transmission as the impulse jumps from one node to the next
the axon divdes into
terminal branches-telodendria, then into terminal buttons
where are the neurotransmitter chamicals located?
the vesicles in the terminal buttons
what is the site of communication with other cells?
the terminal buttons filled with neurotransmitters
between nerve cells is a tiny gap called
pathways are either sensory-_________, or motor-_________
afferent pathways transmit information how?
from sensory receptors to the cns
efferent pathways transmit information how?
from the cns toward muscles and glands
unipolar neurons have _____ process and bipolar have ________
one; two processes
most neurons in the ns are multipolar T or F?
these cause movement to occur
these carry sensory info to the brain
interneurons do what
connect neurons to each other
most neurons in the cns are
what are some neurotransmitter types?
dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine