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Describe Hunting in Africa at the turn of the 20th Century.
- Huge free-for-all
- Sharp drop-off in big game
- First emergence of preservation ethic in Africa leading to the emergence of game reserves
What characterized the first game reserves of Africa
- BIG - 1000s of hectares
- Marginal - little agricultural potential
- Categorical - certain species valued above others such as the lion and elephant
- Exclusionary - Hunting was for Europeans NOT Africans
Describe the cultural shift on conservation in the 20s and 30s and why this change came about
- Broader concern with preservation of African wildlife in their natural state
- Why - increasing affluence and urbanization, preservation societies in Europe, new technologies
What is the difference between a National Park vs a Game Reserve?
- Legality - NP is government owned, GR is private owned
- Clientele - NP is for tourists, GR is for elite hunters
- Priviliged Species
How did early conservation efforts in Africa reflect the cultural priorities of the time?
Game reserves --> A response to limited game elite hunters
National parks --> More concern for preservation and aimed towards tourism
What are some criticisms on Garrett Hardin's "Tragedy of the Commons"
- Failure to distinguish between open access unowned resources and common property.
- res nullius vs res communis
Explain "Selfishness versus Altruism"
Selfishness - The rational actor model; people act in strict self-interest
Altruism- Functionalist theory: humans take account of the interests of the group
What are Common Property Resources?
- CPRs are resources that
- 1. are difficult to exclude users from accessing
- 2. are subtractable (one's use decreases what's available to others).
What are the different types of Common Pool Resources and give some examples
- 1. Open Access
- High seas, arctic
- 2. Private Property
- An area owned by an individual or organization
- 3. Common Property
- Pastures, forests, fishing grounds (owned by collectives)
- 4. Government Property
- National Parks, forests, fishing grounds
What factors/events influenced our relationship with the sea's biodiversity in history?
- Shift from fresh-water to marine fishing in the 11th Century
- Catholicism's influence on diets
- Age of Exploration brought an abundance of fish for people (ex. Newfoundland)
- Technological revolutions for fishing - refrigerated boats, huge nets, larger vessels
- Global industry for fish- Whaling industry with whaling locations all over the globe
Explain the concept of "Shifting Baselines"
- Baseline shift is the observation that each generation has a different notion of what is "normal" (the baseline).
- For example,
- Humans like to catch bigger fish and, in an evolutionary sense, that puts the bigger fishes at a disadvantage. As a result, fishes would have gotten smaller over time. However, each generation would think that the size of the fish during their life would be the "regular" size for the fish because of a lack of perspective on the larger scale.
What are the ecological challenges of understanding the marine environment?
- Scale- Ecosystems can cover huge areas and have indistinct boundaries (based on temperature, salinity, currents, tectonic features etc.)
- - Fish move around --> hard to find site-dependent species with limited movement
- - Migratory species such as whales have more than one location
- - Spatially separated areas can be functionally connected (spawning, larval dispersal)
- - Events outside of the area can influence it (ex. oil spills, climate change etc.)
- Variability- Oceans are complex and adaptive systems (influenced by winds, temperature, acid, etc)
- - Our impacts have unpredictable effects
What are the Management challenges of the marine environment?
- - The sea is more pristine than land and requires a non intervention approach
- Limited Scientific Knowledge Base
- - Out-of-sight-out-of-mind mentality
- - Marine areas are complex and expensive to study. (our perspective is from land)
- Multiple Use of Coastal Seas
- - Diversity of uses = conflicts
- Alien Nature of Marine Ecosystems
- - Disturbance is not visible at the surface
- - Lack of empathy or familiarity with marine life. (Lack of intrinsic appeal)
- - Sea as an adversary (perception)
What was the Chagos Islands Case?
In the 1960s, the establishment of the Chagos MPA in the British Indian Ocean Territory resulted in the eviction of the residents to other islands and the UK of the archipelago. The inhabitants were given compensation in the 70s for their move. In 2004, residents took the case to the international courts where they lost. At the end, this set up a really bad image for MPAs in the area.
What characterizes Ecosystem-Based Management
What are some critiques?
- - Not looking at one species, an ecosystem
- - Considers the whole food chain rather than one species
- - Acknowledges the role of humans in ecosystems
- - Uses a precautionary approach
- - Ecological not political boundaries
- - Takes adaptive measure to deal with ecological complexity
- It is very difficult to implement
- (jurisdictional issues and justice implications)
- --> Fortress conservationesque ex. Chagos
- The protected areas are often huge and pose significant enforcement challenges.
What is a "precautionary approach"?
- An approach that understands that a lack of evidence for an effect doesn't mean that the effect does not exist.
- Instead of doing something until you're sure that it's bad, not doing something until you're sure that it's not bad
What are the three factors taken into an Ecosystem Approach?
- Ecological PerspectiveSocioeconomic Perspective-Stakeholders, issues, and values
- Institutional Perspective-Laws and mandates, Staffing and funding
What are Marine Protected Areas and what are their benefits?
Defined areas that are managed with the intention of conservation and long term sustainability.
- Benefits include
- -protection of habitat
- -biodiversity conservation
- -Protect or enhances ecosystem services
- -Recovery of depleted stocks
- -Insurance against environmental or management uncertainty
- -Sites for scientific investigation
- -A "Noah's Ark" in case everything else goes to shit
How is the Great Barrier Reef a good example of EBM?
- Multiple zones with different protection levels that address the different uses
- A Rezoning process that involves the locals
- An increase in "no take" areas made possible
What are some of the issues with Marine Protected Areas
They don't account for activities that occur outside their boundaries such as oil spills and climate change
- Concerns about equity and justice - can exclude stakeholders and take on characteristics of "fortress conservation"
- ex. Chagos - natives are forced out
Not necessarily an ecosystem based approach
Not always politically possible to restrict fishing
What is the Ndumo game reserve and what is its significance to CBNRM?
The Ndumo game reserve was an area of land that was changed to CBNRM. The illiterate and poor locals were evicted in the 1960s for the reserve but regained the land in 1980 through CBNRM. Today there are tensions within the community over the small benefits of the program and between locals and the government.
Ndumo could be regarded as a failed case of CBNRM
Wbat are the Antarctic Treaties?
1959 – Antarctic Treaty à for peaceful purposes only
1964 – Agreed measures for Conservation of Antarctic Fauna & Flora
1972 – Conservation of Antarctic Seals
1980 – Convention for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
1988 – Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities
What are some critiques of CBNRM
- Political (is prioritized) vs the Ecological Scale
- - CBNRM is almost exclusively bound to the state boundaries whereas ecosystems cross borders
- The Local Trap
- - The local decision is not always socially just or ecologically sustainable (nothing inherently just or equitable about the local scale) and is romanticized --> Elite Capture – the local elites get the majority of benefits
- CBNRM has been corrupted
- - There is an increased gap between how CBNRM is idealized and how it is implemented
- Tends to take a neoliberal character where the community wants max profits from their resource
What propelled the shift to CBNRM?
1. Communities were no longer viewed as enemies and were inseparable from their environment
2. Sustainable Development Ideal (Our Common Future 1987)
- 3. Neoliberalism – Resource use is best determined by market access
- The commodification of nature (selling it to save it)
What is "Fortress Conservation"
Also known as “Fences and Fines” conservation, Fortress Conservation was the dominant paradigm for managing national parks in the 20th century.
Its primary function was to keep animals in and local people out
The view was that local people were the enemies of conservation (countering the view of “wild” and human free Africa)
Used forcible evictions (ex 1950s Massai eviction from the Serengeti)
What is CBNRM?
- A response to fortress conservation
- Local empowerment --> local management
- Must be financially self sustaining
- A bottom-up approach
- Addresses economic, environmental and social goals
What is CAMPFIRES? and what are some critiques?
- Happened in Zimbabwe
- Shift in resource ownership from the State to local communities.
- The establishment of RDCs (Rural District Councils)
- - Must prove capacity to manage wildlife
- -Communities fully involved in decision making
- - Financial benefits direct to community
A poster child for CBNRM
- --> Majority of money still went to the elites
- -->The local trap - locals didn't always have the best intentions
What is the Great Limpopo Trans frontier Park
- A proposal to Merge National Parks in Mozambique, S Africa, and Zimbabwe
- 100 000 km2
- Designed to accommodate the migratory paths of Elephants
However, there is skepticism from the locals who experienced evictions and promises of compensation in the 50s and 60s when the original parks were being formed
What is Rights Based Conservation?
- Putting rights, access, and justice first before the economy and environment
- Addresses the needs of the community and requires the involvement of locals
- No new parks without informed consent of the indigenous and no forced evictions
What is TRIPS? (1995)
- Minimum standards for protecting and enforcing IPR
- All nations must integrate IPR protection into national legislation
- Prioritizes individual/corporate ownership over shared ownership
What was the Cartagena Protocol on Bio Safety? (2000/2003)
Safe handling/transport/use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity
Describe the case of the "Neem tree"
- A case of biopiracy
- Known to indians as a miracle plant used for medicinal, dental, and contraceptive uses.
- 1985 - American pharmaceutical company obtained patent for Azadirachtin, the chemical that gave the tree its benefits
- --> created tooth paste, birth pill, and medicine
- 1990 - 12 patents
- Indians were outraged (Vandana Shiva) and took the corporations to court --> won in 1995
What is Bio prospecting?
The search for valuables from biota to develop industrial products such as cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture
What is Bio Piracy?
- Stealing/plundering genetic material
- ex. Hoodia Cactus
- However there is is no specific case of biopiracy because it is difficult to identify such cases (they can look like examples of bioprospecting)
Describe the case of the Hoodia Cactus?
Hoodia Cactus was used as a hunger suppressant by indigenous people
Phytopharm patented P-57, the hunger suppressing ingredient obtained from the plant
Their stock was bought by Physer but were sued by the San people - they get 8% royalties