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how do you describe normal equine urine?
- Pale yellow to deep tan
- Turbid: hi Ca carbonate
- Viscous: Goblet cells
- SG: >1.025
what blood work findings are suggestive of GFR function?
creatinine and BUN
what part of the urinary system can be examined via endoscopy?
- Proximal ureters
why would normal urine test positive for proteins on dipstick?
what are your two differentials for positive blood reaction on dipstick?
How will fluid administration help you determine if azotemia is prerenal vs. renal?
- Prerenal Azotemia =
- Creatinine decrease >50% w/in 24hrs
Expected electrolyte abnormalities with ARF?
What are expected clin path findings with NSAID toxicosis?
- Azotemia with LOW USG
- Low PCV/TP
- (PLE w/ ulcers)
how do aminoglycosides (gentamicin, amikacin) cause problems in kidney?
How can this be avoided?
- Binds to proximal tubular epithelial cells
- Acute tubular necrosis
- Saturates brush border
Proteinuria and GGT in urine
how does rhabdomyolysis damage kidneys?
Pigment nephropathy (myoglobin) - toxic to tubules
Common Manifestations of Lepto
Why should alfalfa be removed from diet of CRF P?
- High Ca
- (already hyperCa from CRF)
Urolithiasis rare but may be associated with...?
what is most common cystolith?
calcium carbonate stones
what is recommended treatment for cystolith? 4
- Removal via paramedian incision
- Antimicrobials (TMS)
- Decr. Ca intake
- +/- Acidification (rarely successful)
What is a sabulous urolith?
Why is this a problem?
Sandy material in bladder forms concretion of CaCO3
Prevents complete emptying of bladder
how is sabulous urolith managed?
Bladder lavages with anti-inflammatories (difficult)
Locations for peripheral pulse? 6
- Facial A
- Transverse facial A
- Median A
- Digital A
- Metatarsal A
- Carotid A
Which heart sounds are audible in the horse?
What does each represent?
- S1: Closure of AV valves (systole)
- S2: Closure of semilunar valves (end systole)
- S3: Elastic recoil at end of rapid Ventricular filling
- S4: Atrial contraction
Two mechanisms for arrythmias?
- Impaired conduction
- Changes in automaticity
Causes of sinus tachycardia? 6
Appearance on ECG?
HR >60 w/ N complexes
what is most common arrythmia in horse?
- Atrial Fibrillation
- (80% have underlying heart disease)
What are some contributing factors leading to atrial fibrillation? 6
- Incr. vagal tone
- Enlarged atria
- Atrial mass
- Myocardial damage
- Short refractory period
C/S associated with atrial fibrillation? 5
- *exercise intolerance*
- Dyspnea and tachypnea
S4 is absent with...
Expected HR with atrial fib?
ECG findings associated with atrial fibrillation?
How is A-fib treated if present < 2wks?
- IV Quinidine Gluconate
Tx for long standing A fib?
- PO Quinidine Sulfate
C/S of quinidine toxicity? 8
- Respiratory distress/Edema/Congestion of nasal mucosa
- Neuro signs
- Sudden death
What % of P will successfully convert electrical cardioconversion?
Tx of Afib change with CHF?
- No quinidine
- Tx underlying cause
What is normal cardio finding with to high vagal tone?
What drug can also induce this?
- 2nd degree AV block
ECG finding seen with 3rd degree AV block?
- Dissociated P and R's
- Normal P-P and R-R
- Ventricular rate > atrial
Complete heart block Tx?
- Stall rest
What ECG finding is indicative of a VPC w/ poor prognosis?
Multiform with R on T
C/S associated with VPCs? 6
- HR >120
- Venous distention
- Ventral edema
- Poor performance/collapse
When should you treat V Tach? 5
- Sustained V-tach
- HR >100
- R on T
- CV collapse
V-tach Tx? 5
- Continous ECG monitoring
- Lidocaine IV
- Quinidine gluconate IV
- Procainamide IV
- MgSO4 IV
C/S of monensin toxicosis? 6
- Ataxia/hind limb weakness
- Profuse sweating
What changes are seen on clin path with monensin toxicosis? 4
- (damaged cardiac and skeletal m)
ECG changes seen with monensin toxicity?
- Prolonged P-QT
- S-T abnormalities
What is best determinant of prognosis in a P with Monensin Tox?
- Echo = Fractional shortening
- 30-40% excellent