Exam 6

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Anonymous
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212955
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Exam 6
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2013-04-11 18:23:19
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anatomy exam MSU
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  1. Defend or Refute. based on the principle for sexual differentiation in mammals, it is possible to feminize a male. EXPLAIN
    REFUTE. all embryos female unless masculinized. Y chromosome dominant. cannot feminize a male.
  2. Define sexual differentiation. Use no more than 10 words.
    process that creates sexual phenotype.
  3. Define a Freemartin. Use no more than 10 words.
    masculinize genotypic female co-twin
  4. Start at conception and in sequence describe four key events and the cause for sexual differentiation in a stallion.
    • Gonad-genital ridge-> Testes   HY anitgen
    • Tubular- wolffran ducts-> Vas deferens AMH
    • Ext. genitalia-scrotum, penis  DHT
    • CNS-masculinize LHRH nuclei  E2->T
  5. schedules for artificial insemination(AI) are based on fundamental biological issues. Excluding seasonality and type of ovulator, describe four fundamental issues that determine schedule for AI in virtually all mammals.
    • 1) timing ovulation
    • 2) fertile life of oocyte
    • 3) time required for capacitation and transport of spermatozoa
    • 4) fertile life of adequate number of spermatozoa
  6. select one of the issues from above 2a and defend as the most important to determine the schedule for artificial insemination.
    • fertile life of oocyte-- shortest interval
    • OR time of ovulation
  7. what is the weakness of how the AM-PM Rule is applied/used to time AI in cattle?
    failure to detect onset/start of estrus so AI is too late in many animals
  8. Within the reproductive tract of female mammals, what is the location of fertilization?
    posterior oviducts
  9. Define puberty in female swine. No more than 10 words
    first spontaneous ovulation.
  10. A group of females have challenges with health and growth. Use a common theory for puberty to describe and explain the likely timing for occurrence of puberty in these females.
    with health or growth limitations, accumulation of fat will be limiting. thus older when achieve threshold for fat to allow puberty.
  11. Defend or Refute. the two major reproductive goals for beef cattle are different form the major reproductive goals for dairy cattle. EXPLAIN
    • Refute. the two major goals are indentical-->
    • age at 1st parturition and calving interval
  12. Use narrative and numbers to state specifically two major goals for reproduction in horse and swine female.
    • 1) Horse female: a. 1st parturition at 4 yrs
    •                          b. successive foaling at 12 mo
    • 2) Swine female: a. 1st partur at 11-12 mo
    •                          b. successive farrowing at 150 days
  13. Defend or Refute. Estradiol exerts a direct and indirect regulatory effect on the function and life span of a corpus luteum in most mammalian livestock females. EXPLAIN.
    • DEFEND.
    • direct- decrease activity of 3BHSD
    • indirect- increase PGF2 from endometrium.
  14. Defend or Refute. after ovulation, the ovulated follicle has no further functional significance and is reabsorbed.
    REfute. granulosa and theca differentiate into luteal cells and become corpus luteum
  15. from 2 to 18 days postestrus in a nonpregnant ewe, describe inventory of luteal cells in a corpus luteum and the association with function of that corpus luteum.
    • small--> decrease as days progress
    • large--> increase as days progress
  16. During an estrus cycle, when does diapedsis occur?
    metestrus
  17. including cause, describe/define diapedesis.
    leaky capillaries due to decrease estradiol.
  18. define follicular recruitment. what factors regulate recrutiment.
    primordial follicle--> primary
  19. Describe a dominant ovarian follicle.
    largest, most granulosa, highest estradiol
  20. Including numbers and time, describe a non-ovulatory follicular wave in mares.
    • overall duration 7 to 10 days
    • _ 20 follicles become primary
  21. Define postpartum anovulation in beef cows.
    interval>21 days with no ovluation
  22. Describe features of a beef cow that almost certainly will experience very prolonged postpartum anovulation.
    • -primiparous
    • -BCS<4.0
    • -uterine infection
    • -low NE in diet prepartum
  23. Define "foal heat"
    estrus and ovulation 7 to 10 days postpartum
  24. Beef cows do not experience "calf heat" and sows do not experience "piglet heat" EXPLAIN
    suckling delays estrus/ovulation
  25. Exclude lactogenesis, start of lactation, and welfare of neonate and dam. Name 3 major prepartum changes or events that must occur for successful parturition.
    1) ⇣ inhibition to myometrium--⇣P4

    2) ⇡expulsive forces--⇡PGF2

    3) soften cervix--relaxin
  26. Defend or Refute. During parturition, myometrium is a target for oxytocin.
    • Refute.Oxytocin binds to endometrium
    • does not cause contractions
  27. Provide the duration of gestation for horse, swine, sheep. Include units for time. Classify species according to need for corpus luteum during gestation. Indicate % of gestation that CL required.
    • 1)Horses: 330days   % 50/175d 15/53%
    • 2)Swine: 114d         % 114d 100%
    • 3)Sheep: 145d         % 55 33%

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