4.1.3 + 4.2.1

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  1. (formula) What is the main protein source? (2)


    **from cows milk
  2. Are there specialized forms of formulas?

    *soy based, predigested, others for certain medical conditions
  3. How many minimum and maximum standards are there on formua?
    29 nutrients that have a minimum and maximum standards
  4. 5 reasons why we can introduce solids at 4-6 months
    -tongue movement allows swallowing

    -infants can sit up

    -digestive and kidney systems have matured

    -less likely to develop food allergies

    -iron-fortified cereals are well tolerated
  5. 7 things infants should not eat
    -food they can choke on

    -corn syrup or honey

    -goats milk

    -cows milk

    -large quant. of juice

    -too much salt or sugar

    -too much breast milk, formula, and water
  6. 6 nutrition related concerns for infants




    -nursing bottle syndrome

    -lead poisoning
  7. (allergies) how should solid food be introduced?
    They should be introduced one at a time for a week to watch for allergies
  8. Allergy foods
    -cows milk

    -egg whites


    -wheat commonly trigger food allergies
  9. Is dehydration dangerous for infants?
    yes, extremely dangerous
  10. What is dehydration caused by in an infant? (3)


    -inadequate fluid intake
  11. What solution can be used for dehydration?
    pediatric electrolyte
  12. What is colic?
    uncontrollable crying that can last for hours
  13. Whats the cause for colic?
    precise cause is unknown
  14. How can anemia happen in an infant?
    infants are only born with enough iron for only 6 months
  15. What is nursing bottle syndrome?
    -it is tooth decay and dental caries caused by leaving an infant alone with a bottle
  16. Why does nursing bottle syndrome occur?
    the high carbohydrate fluid provides an optimal food source for bacteria that cause dental caries
  17. When should a cup be used for infants?
    begin to use cup by 8 months and no bottle after 18 months
  18. what results from Lead poisoning? (3)
    -reduced mental capacity

    -behavioral problems

    -impaired growth
  19. How long should tap water be allowed to be run before use?
    a minute to discard lead leached from pipes
  20. Why is lead poisoning especially toxic to infants?
    the brain and nervous system are still developing
  21. What does WIC stand for?
    Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children
  22. what does WIC provide?
    special food vouchers to pregnant and lactating women, and children under 5 years of age
  23. What is the purpose of WIC?
    to increase likelihood of a healthy baby
  24. Whats the energy requirement for toddlers?
    high energy requirement due to increased activity level
  25. Does the rapid growth continue during toddler?
    it starts slow comparing to ifnancy growth
  26. What percent should fats make of a toddler diet?
  27. How much protein per kg body weight shoudl toddlers consume?
    1.10 g
  28. How much carbohydrates should toddlers consume per day?
    130 g
  29. Whats the most common nutrient deficiency in young children?
    iron-deficient anemia
  30. What 6 micros important for toddlers?
    -vit A

    -vit C

    -vit E



  31. How much fluids should toddlers drink?
    1.3 liters a day
  32. Should toddlers take supplements?
    they may need due to their erratic eating habits, especially for flouride
  33. How to deal with allergies with toddlers?
    intorduce one new food at a time

    *cotinue to watch for allergies
  34. For vegetarian families, can a diet that includes eggs and dairy be healtful?
  35. Is a vegan diet essential and optimal for toddlers?
    it may lack essential vitamins and minerals
  36. What should the macros be for ages 4-8?
    -25-35% of total energy from fat

    -.95 grams of protein per kg body weight

    -130 grams of carbs per day
  37. Are micronutrients still a concern? if so which ones?

    **same 6 as before
  38. How much fluids should children of 4-8 drink?
    1.7 liters
  39. Should supplements be consumed by ages 4-8?
    they may be recommended when particular food groups are not eaten regularly
  40. What good tactic should be used to motivate child age 4-8 to eat healthy?
    motivate the kid by something that he cares about

    ex) you will be able to jump higher when playing basketball
  41. Nutrition and Academic performance
    if skipped breakfast, they performed worse
  42. Which should approach should be used to teach kids to eat?
    child-centered practices
  43. When do children start to make their own decisions of food?
    9 to 13 years of age
  44. Macros for ages 9-13
    -25-35% of total energy from fat

    -.95 g protein per kg body weight

    • - 130 grams carbohydrates per day
    • *45-60% of calories from carbs
  45. Micronutrients needs of ages 9-13
    the need for micros increased sharply as children approach puberty
  46. Which two micros are very important for ages 9-13?
    calcium and iron
  47. How much fluids should males consume during ages 9-13?
    2.4 liters
  48. How much fluids should females consume ages 9-13?
    2.1 liters
  49. What two people can influence child's food choices?
    peer pressure and healthy role models
  50. Ages 9-13 and Satiety
    -this is age group in where they lose their satiety. they eat to eat
  51. when do growth spurts begin in girls?
  52. When do growth spurts begin forboys?
    12 to 13
  53. which 4 micros are important in adolescents?
    calcium and vitamin D and iron and vitamin A
  54. why is calcium and vitamin D improtant in adolescence?
    it achieves peak bone density
  55. Why is vitamin A critical for adolescence?
    critical for supporting rapid growth and development
  56. How much mg a day do females need to consume of iron during adolescence?
    15 mg
  57. How much mg a day do males need to consume of iron during adolescence?
    11 mg
  58. Where does bone growth occur?
    it occurs at epiphyseal plate
  59. How many liters a day should boys drink during adolescence?
    3.3 liters a day
  60. How many liters a day should females drink during adolescent?
    2.3 liters a day
Card Set:
4.1.3 + 4.2.1
2013-04-12 01:55:57

life cycle 1 and lifecycle 2
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