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(formula) What is the main protein source? (2)
**from cows milk
Are there specialized forms of formulas?
*soy based, predigested, others for certain medical conditions
How many minimum and maximum standards are there on formua?
29 nutrients that have a minimum and maximum standards
5 reasons why we can introduce solids at 4-6 months
-tongue movement allows swallowing
-infants can sit up
-digestive and kidney systems have matured
-less likely to develop food allergies
-iron-fortified cereals are well tolerated
7 things infants should not eat
-food they can choke on
-corn syrup or honey
-large quant. of juice
-too much salt or sugar
-too much breast milk, formula, and water
6 nutrition related concerns for infants
-nursing bottle syndrome
(allergies) how should solid food be introduced?
They should be introduced one at a time for a week to watch for allergies
-wheat commonly trigger food allergies
Is dehydration dangerous for infants?
yes, extremely dangerous
What is dehydration caused by in an infant? (3)
-inadequate fluid intake
What solution can be used for dehydration?
What is colic?
uncontrollable crying that can last for hours
Whats the cause for colic?
precise cause is unknown
How can anemia happen in an infant?
infants are only born with enough iron for only 6 months
What is nursing bottle syndrome?
-it is tooth decay and dental caries caused by leaving an infant alone with a bottle
Why does nursing bottle syndrome occur?
the high carbohydrate fluid provides an optimal food source for bacteria that cause dental caries
When should a cup be used for infants?
begin to use cup by 8 months and no bottle after 18 months
what results from Lead poisoning? (3)
-reduced mental capacity
How long should tap water be allowed to be run before use?
a minute to discard lead leached from pipes
Why is lead poisoning especially toxic to infants?
the brain and nervous system are still developing
What does WIC stand for?
Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children
what does WIC provide?
special food vouchers to pregnant and lactating women, and children under 5 years of age
What is the purpose of WIC?
to increase likelihood of a healthy baby
Whats the energy requirement for toddlers?
high energy requirement due to increased activity level
Does the rapid growth continue during toddler?
it starts slow comparing to ifnancy growth
What percent should fats make of a toddler diet?
How much protein per kg body weight shoudl toddlers consume?
How much carbohydrates should toddlers consume per day?
Whats the most common nutrient deficiency in young children?
What 6 micros important for toddlers?
How much fluids should toddlers drink?
1.3 liters a day
Should toddlers take supplements?
they may need due to their erratic eating habits, especially for flouride
How to deal with allergies with toddlers?
intorduce one new food at a time
*cotinue to watch for allergies
For vegetarian families, can a diet that includes eggs and dairy be healtful?
Is a vegan diet essential and optimal for toddlers?
it may lack essential vitamins and minerals
What should the macros be for ages 4-8?
-25-35% of total energy from fat
-.95 grams of protein per kg body weight
-130 grams of carbs per day
Are micronutrients still a concern? if so which ones?
**same 6 as before
How much fluids should children of 4-8 drink?
Should supplements be consumed by ages 4-8?
they may be recommended when particular food groups are not eaten regularly
What good tactic should be used to motivate child age 4-8 to eat healthy?
motivate the kid by something that he cares about
ex) you will be able to jump higher when playing basketball
Nutrition and Academic performance
if skipped breakfast, they performed worse
Which should approach should be used to teach kids to eat?
When do children start to make their own decisions of food?
9 to 13 years of age
Macros for ages 9-13
-25-35% of total energy from fat
-.95 g protein per kg body weight
- - 130 grams carbohydrates per day
- *45-60% of calories from carbs
Micronutrients needs of ages 9-13
the need for micros increased sharply as children approach puberty
Which two micros are very important for ages 9-13?
calcium and iron
How much fluids should males consume during ages 9-13?
How much fluids should females consume ages 9-13?
What two people can influence child's food choices?
peer pressure and healthy role models
Ages 9-13 and Satiety
-this is age group in where they lose their satiety. they eat to eat
when do growth spurts begin in girls?
When do growth spurts begin forboys?
12 to 13
which 4 micros are important in adolescents?
calcium and vitamin D and iron and vitamin A
why is calcium and vitamin D improtant in adolescence?
it achieves peak bone density
Why is vitamin A critical for adolescence?
critical for supporting rapid growth and development
How much mg a day do females need to consume of iron during adolescence?
How much mg a day do males need to consume of iron during adolescence?
Where does bone growth occur?
it occurs at epiphyseal plate
How many liters a day should boys drink during adolescence?
3.3 liters a day
How many liters a day should females drink during adolescent?
2.3 liters a day