musculoskeletal terms

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musculoskeletal terms
2013-04-13 20:42:49
musculoskeletal terms

musculoskeletal terms
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  1. fasci/o
    band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
  2. plasty
    surgical repair
  3. fibr/o
    fiber, fibrous tissue
  4. oma
  5. leiomy/o
    smooth muscle (visceral)
  6. lumb/o
    loins (lower back)
  7. muscul/o, my/o
  8. rrhexis
  9. ten/o,
  10. -asthenia
    weakness, debility
  11. -plegia
  12. -rrhaphy
  13. -sarcoma
    malignant tumor of connective tissue
  14. Flexion & extension
    bending and extension of a limb
  15. abduction & adduction
    movement away from and toward the body
  16. pronation & supination
    turning the hand to a palm down or palm up position
  17. dorsiflexion
    bending the foot or toes upward or downward
  18. eversion & inversion
    moving the sole of the foot outward or inward
  19. carp/o
    carpus ( wrist bones)
  20. -ptosis
    prolapse, downward displacement
  21. cervic/o
    neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
  22. cost/o
  23. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  24. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  25. matacarp/o
    metacarpus (hand bones)
  26. phalang/o
    phalanges (bones of fingers and toes)
  27. spondyl/o
    vertebra (backbone)

    ankylosing spondylitis (form of arthritis that may eventually cause the spine to fuse in an immoble position.  Spondylitis may result from a traumatic injury to the spine, infection or rheumatoid disease.
  28. vertebr/o
    vertebra (backbone)
  29. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  30. calcane/o
    calcaneum (heel bone)
  31. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  32. fibul/o
    fibula (smaller, outer bone of lower leg)
  33. patell/o
    patella (kneecap)
  34. pelv/i, pelv/o
  35. -metry

    pelvimetry helps determine if it will be possible to deliver a fetus through the normal route
  36. radi/o
    radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone, thumb side)
  37. tibi/o
    tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
  38. ankyl/o
    stiffness; bent, crooked

    ankylosis: immobility of a joint
  39. arthr/o
  40. chondr/o
  41. lamin/o
    lamina (part of vertebral arch)
  42. myel/o
    bone marrow; spinal cord
  43. orth/o
  44. -clasia
    to break
  45. -clast
    to break
  46. cyte
  47. -desis
    binding; fixation (of a bone or joint)
  48. -malacia
  49. -physis
  50. -porosis
  51. closed fracture
    bone is broken with no open wound.

    surrounding tissue damage is minimal
  52. Open fracture (compound fracture)
    broken end of a bone pierces the skin, creating an open would.  Extensive damage to surrounding blood vessels, nerves, and muscles.
  53. Greenstick fracture
    incomplete break of a soft bone, which means bone is partially bent and partially broken

    (common in children)
  54. comminuted fracture
    bone broken into pieces
  55. impacted fracture
    broken ends of a bone are forced into one another
  56. complicated fracture
    involves extensive soft tissue injury (broken rib pierces lung)
  57. Colles fracture
    break of the lower end of the radius

    causes displacement of the hand

    occurs as a result of flexing a hand to cushion a fall
  58. incomplete fracture
    line of fracture does not include the whole bone
  59. muscular dystrophy
    • group of hereditary disease characterized by gradual atrophy and weakness of muscle tissue
    • (no cure)
  60. myasthenia gravis (MG)
    autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe muscular weakness and progressive fatigue
  61. rotator cuff injuries
    (musculogendinous rotator cuff injuries)
    • injuries to the capsule of the shoulder joint, which is reinforced by muscles and tendons
    • (baseball pitcher)
  62. sprain
    trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability
  63. strain
    trauma to a muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch
  64. talipes equinovarus (clubfoot)
    congenital deformity of the foot

    (heel never rests on the ground.)
  65. tendinitis
    inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury or overuse
  66. torticollis (wryneck)
    spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles, causing stiffness and twisting of the neck
  67. CTS
    carpal tunnel syndrome

    pain or numbness resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel
  68. contracture
    fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
  69. crepitiation
    grating sound made by movement of bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
  70. Ewing sarcoma
    malignant tumor that develops from bone marrow, usually in long bones or the pelvis
  71. gout
    hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis, characterized by excessive uric acid in the blood and around the joints
  72. herniated disk (prolapsed disk)
    herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposus between 2 vertebrae
  73. osteoporosis
    decrease in bone density with an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of fractures
  74. Paget disease (osteitis deformans)
    skeletal disease affecting elderly people that causes chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones and bowing of long bones
  75. RA
    rhematoid arthritis

    chronic, systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of multiple joints, eventually resulting in crippling deformities.

    As RA develops, there is edema of the synovial membrane and joint, causing formation of a thick layer of granulation tissue.  This tissue invades cartilage, destroying the joint and bone.  Eventually, a fibrous immobility of joints (ankylosis) occurs, causing visible deformities and total immobility
  76. subluxation
    partial or complete dislocation
  77. sequestrum
    fragment of a necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
  78. ankylosing spondylitis
    (rheumatoid spondylitis)
    chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin that first affects the spine and is characterized by fusing and loss of mobility of 2 or more vertebrae
  79. kyphosis
    increased curvature of the thoracic region of the vertebral column
  80. lordosis
    forward curvature of lumbar region

    swayback posture
  81. scoliosis
    abnormal sideward curvature of the spine to left or right
  82. spondylolisthesis
    (spinal cord compression)
    partial forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one below it, most commonly L5 over S1
  83. -listhesis
  84. arthrocentesis
    puncture of a joint space with a needle to remove fluid
  85. rheumatoid factor
    blood test t detect the presence of rheumatoid factor, a substances present in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
  86. arthroplasty
    surgical construction or replacement of a painful, degenerated joint to restore mobility in rheumatoid or osteoarthritis or to correct a congenital deformity
  87. sequestrectomy
    excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
  88. sequestr-