Pharmacology 1 chapter 2

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Pharmacology 1 chapter 2
2013-04-13 20:23:34

chapter 2
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  1. the process whereby a drug enters the circulatory system.
  2. A dependence characterized by a perceived need to take a drug to attain the psychological and physical effects of mood altering substances.
  3. The strength by which a particular chemical messenger binds to its receptor site on a cell.
  4. Drugs that bind to a particular receptor site and trigger the cell's response in a manner similar to the action of the body's own chemical messenger.
  5. substance that produces and allergic response.
  6. A severe allergic response resulting in immediate life-threatening respiratory distress, usually followed by vascular collapse and shock an accompanied by hives.
    Anaphylactic reaction
  7. abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue.
  8. Drugs that bind to a receptor site and block the action of the endogenous messenger or other drugs.
  9. A specific molecule that stimulates an immune response.
  10. the degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after adminisration.
  11. A barrier that prevents many substances from entering the cerebrospinal fluid from the blood.
    Blood-brain barrier
  12. a point at which no clinical response occurs with increased dosage.
    Ceiling effect
  13. The rate at which a drug is eliminated from a specific volume of blood per unit of time.
  14. A disease, condition, or symptom for which a drug will not be beneficial and may do harm.
  15. a state in whch a person's body has adapted physiologically and psychologically to a drug and cannot function without it.
  16. the process by which a drug moves from the blood into other body fluids and tissues and ultimately to its site of action
  17. The length of time a drug gives the desired response or is at the therapeutic level.
    Duration of action
  18. Removal of a drug or it's metabolites from the body by excretion
  19. a constant fraction of the drug is eliminated per unit of time
  20. the extent to which a drug is metabolized by the liver before reaching systemic circulation
    first-pass effect
  21. the time necessary for the body to eliminate half of the drug in the body at any time.
    • Half-life
    • T1/2
  22. stability of the organism
  23. an unusual or unexpected response to a drug that is unrelated to the dose given.
    Idiosyncratic reaction
  24. A disease, symptom, or condition for which a drug is known to be of benefit.
  25. The process whereby a drug increases the concentration of certain enzymes that affect the pharmacologic response to another drug. 
  26. the process whereby a drug blocks enzyme activity and impairs the metabolism of another drug.
  27. A change in the action of a drug caused by another drug, a food, or another substance such as alcohol or nicotine.
  28. A fatty molecule, an important constituent of cell membranes.
  29. an action of a drug that is confined to a specific part of the body. 
    Local effect
  30. amount of a drug that will bring the blood concentration rapidly to a therapeutic level
    Loading dose
  31. Amount of a drug administered at regular intervals to keep the blood concentration at a therapeutic level
    maintenance dose
  32. the sequence of chemical steps that convert a drug into a metabolite.
    Metabolic Pathway
  33. The process by which drugs are chemically converted to other compounds.
  34. A substance into which a drug is chemically converted in the body.
  35. The top or upper limit of a drug's concentration in the blood.
  36. A method of describing the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of a drug within the body mathematically. 
    Pharmacokinetic modeling
  37. The activity of a drug within the body over a period of time; includes absorption, distribution, metabolism  and elimination.
  38. Effect of a drug in preventing infection or disease.
  39. Itching sensation.
  40. a protein molecule on the surface of or within a cell that recognizes and binds with specific molecules, thereby producing some effect within the cell. 
  41. A secondary response to a drug other than the primary therapeutic effect for which the drug was intended.
    Side Effect
  42. A drug's ability to dissolve in body fluids.
  43. the property of a receptor site that enables it to bind only with a specific chemical messenger; to bind with a specific cell type, the messenger must have a chemical structure that is complementary to the structure of the cell's receptors. 
  44. An action of a drug that has generalized, all-inclusive effect on the body.
    systemic effect
  45. the desired action of a drug in the treatment of a particular disease state or symptom.
    Therapeutic effect
  46. the optimum dosage, providing the best chance for successful therapy; dosing below this range has little effect on the healing process, while overdosing can lead to toxicity and death. 
    Therapeutic Range
  47. A decrease in response to the effects of a drug as it continues to be administered. 
  48. The lowest level of a drug in the blood.
  49. Hives, itching sensation.
  50. Mathematical relationship between the blood concentration attained and the amount of drug administered. 
    Volume of distribution
  51. slightly elevated, red areas on the body surface
  52. Not depending on the concentration of the drug in the body. (a constant quantity of drug is removed per unit of time.)