the process whereby a drug enters the circulatory system.
A dependence characterized by a perceived need to take a drug to attain the psychological and physical effects of mood altering substances.
The strength by which a particular chemical messenger binds to its receptor site on a cell.
Drugs that bind to a particular receptor site and trigger the cell's response in a manner similar to the action of the body's own chemical messenger.
substance that produces and allergic response.
A severe allergic response resulting in immediate life-threatening respiratory distress, usually followed by vascular collapse and shock an accompanied by hives.
abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue.
Drugs that bind to a receptor site and block the action of the endogenous messenger or other drugs.
A specific molecule that stimulates an immune response.
the degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after adminisration.
A barrier that prevents many substances from entering the cerebrospinal fluid from the blood.
a point at which no clinical response occurs with increased dosage.
The rate at which a drug is eliminated from a specific volume of blood per unit of time.
A disease, condition, or symptom for which a drug will not be beneficial and may do harm.
a state in whch a person's body has adapted physiologically and psychologically to a drug and cannot function without it.
the process by which a drug moves from the blood into other body fluids and tissues and ultimately to its site of action
The length of time a drug gives the desired response or is at the therapeutic level.
Duration of action
Removal of a drug or it's metabolites from the body by excretion
a constant fraction of the drug is eliminated per unit of time
the extent to which a drug is metabolized by the liver before reaching systemic circulation
the time necessary for the body to eliminate half of the drug in the body at any time.
stability of the organism
an unusual or unexpected response to a drug that is unrelated to the dose given.
A disease, symptom, or condition for which a drug is known to be of benefit.
The process whereby a drug increases the concentration of certain enzymes that affect the pharmacologic response to another drug.
the process whereby a drug blocks enzyme activity and impairs the metabolism of another drug.
A change in the action of a drug caused by another drug, a food, or another substance such as alcohol or nicotine.
A fatty molecule, an important constituent of cell membranes.
an action of a drug that is confined to a specific part of the body.
amount of a drug that will bring the blood concentration rapidly to a therapeutic level
Amount of a drug administered at regular intervals to keep the blood concentration at a therapeutic level
the sequence of chemical steps that convert a drug into a metabolite.
The process by which drugs are chemically converted to other compounds.
A substance into which a drug is chemically converted in the body.
The top or upper limit of a drug's concentration in the blood.
A method of describing the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of a drug within the body mathematically.
The activity of a drug within the body over a period of time; includes absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
Effect of a drug in preventing infection or disease.
a protein molecule on the surface of or within a cell that recognizes and binds with specific molecules, thereby producing some effect within the cell.
A secondary response to a drug other than the primary therapeutic effect for which the drug was intended.
A drug's ability to dissolve in body fluids.
the property of a receptor site that enables it to bind only with a specific chemical messenger; to bind with a specific cell type, the messenger must have a chemical structure that is complementary to the structure of the cell's receptors.
An action of a drug that has generalized, all-inclusive effect on the body.
the desired action of a drug in the treatment of a particular disease state or symptom.
the optimum dosage, providing the best chance for successful therapy; dosing below this range has little effect on the healing process, while overdosing can lead to toxicity and death.
A decrease in response to the effects of a drug as it continues to be administered.
The lowest level of a drug in the blood.
Hives, itching sensation.
Mathematical relationship between the blood concentration attained and the amount of drug administered.
Volume of distribution
slightly elevated, red areas on the body surface
Not depending on the concentration of the drug in the body. (a constant quantity of drug is removed per unit of time.)