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2013-04-11 23:04:50
HON 122

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  1. French
    • 1.      French were less successful in making strong war government
    • a.      Faced obstacle as German occupation of NE France cost thee nation 75% of its coal production and almost 80% of its steelmaking capacity
  2. relationship between civil and military
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The relationship between civil and military authorities in france was strained
    • 1.      For the first three years of the war, military and civil authorities struggled over who would oversee the conduct of the war until Georges Clemenceau, who established clear civilian control of a total war government 
  3. Three other countries
    • 1.      Three other countries—Russia, AH, and Italy—had less success than them
    • a.      Autocracies of Russia and AH had backward economies that couldn’t turn out the quantity of war materiel needed to fight a modern war
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Russia, for example, conscripted millions but only armed ¼ of them
    • 1.      Unarmed still told to go and pick up rifles from dead
  4. Due to numerous minorities
    • a.      Due to numerous minorities, there was no internal cohesion
    • Italy lacked public enthusiasm and industrial resources
  5. Public Order and Public Opinion
    • 1.      Internal dissatisfaction replaced patriotic enthusiasm; civilian morale was cracking under the pressure of total war
    • 2.      First 2 years of war= some strikes, but increased      
    • a.      Germany 1916: 50k workers carried out three day work stoppage in Berlin to protest the arrest of a radical socialist leader
  6. France and Britain
    • a.      France and Britain: strikes increased
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Violence in Ireland when members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and Citiens Army occupied government buildings in Dublin on Easter Sunday in 1916
    • 1.      British forces crushed the Easter Rebelion and killed leaders
  7. Internal opposition
    • 1.      Internal opposition: liberals and socialists
    • a.      Liberals sponsored peace resolutions calling for negotiated peace without any territorial acquisitions; ignored
    • b.      Socialists called for negotiated settlements
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1917: war morale was replaced by protests
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Mutinies put down with difficulty
  8. Czech leaders
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Czech leaders in Austrian Empire called for an independent democratic Czech state
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      April 1917: 200k workers in Berlin struck for a week to protest the reduction of bread rations until threatened with military force and prison
    • 1.      All belligerents countries except Russia survived
  9. War governments
    • 1.      War governments fought against opposition
    • a.      Authoritarian regimes relied on force to subdue people
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Under pressure of war, even parliamentary regimes resorted to expansion of police powers to stifle internal dissent
  10. Beginning of war, British
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      At beginning of war, the Brit Parliament passed the Defense of the Realm Act, which allowed the public authorities to arrest dissenters as traitors
    • 1.      Act was extended to authorize public officials to censor newspapers by deleting objectionable material and even to suspend newspaper publication
  11. France, government authorities
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In France, government authorities had been lenient about public opposition to war until 1917, when they feared that open opposition to the war might weaken the French will to fight
    • 1.      When Georgees Clemenceau became premier near end of 1917, the lenient French policies came to an end, and basic civil liberties were suppressed for the duration of the war
    • a.      Editor of antiwar newspaper was killed under treason
  12. Wartime governments and propaganda
    • a.      Wartime governments made active use of propaganda to arouse enthusiasm for war
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Citizens were too willing to believe exaggerated accounts
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      As war dragged on, governments devised new techniques, such as posters supporting war
  13. Social Impact of Total War
    • 1.      Brought end to unemployment since men went to war and people replaced them
    • 2.      Cause of labor benefited
    • a.      Enthusiastic patriotism of workers was rewarded with trade unions
  14. Social Impact of Total War
    • 1.      To make sure labor problems wouldn’t disrupt production, war governments in brit, France, and Germany sought union cooperation and allowed their participation in making important government decisions on labor matters
    • a.      In return, unions cooperated on wage limits and production schedules
  15. Labor Gained Two Benefits
    • a.      Opened the way to collective bargaining practices that became more widespread after WWI
    • b.      Increased prestige of trade unions, ebabling attraction of members
  16. Women
    • 1.      New roles for women who took male jobs, such as clerical jobs in banking and commerce, as well as truck drivers, laborers, factory workers in heavy industry, etc., as well as armaments
    • 2.      1.345 million women obtained new jobs or replaced men
  17. Male resistance
    • 1.      Male resistance made it hard for women to enter
    • a.      Afraid that female lower wages would depress their own wagesà women demand equal pay
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      French gov. passed law in July 1915 that established minimum wage for women homeworkers in textiles, which grew due to need for military workers
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      1917: government decreed tha men and women should receive equal rates for piecework
  18. Despite increases
    • 1.      Despite increases, wages not equal
    • 2.      Women had little real security about place in workforce; many jobs were only temporary since governments moved to remove women at end of war
    • a.      1919: 650k unemployed women in Britain, and wages were lowered
    • b.      Short-lived benefits
  19. Positive impact
    • 1.      In some countries, they had a positive impact on their social and political emancipation
    • a.      Right to vote in Germany and Austria after war, US 19th Amendment
    • b.      Media focued on noticeable yet more superficial social emancipation of upper and middle class women, where these women had their own apartments, took jobs, and smoked in public, wore shorter dresses, cosmetics, boy hair
  20. WWI as great social leveler
    • 1.      Death in battle didn’t distinguish between classes, but two groups hit hard
    • a.      Junior officers who ed charges across “no-man’s land” that separated the trenches had deaths 3x higher than regular casualty
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Many were aristocrats
  21. Inskilled workers and peasants
    • a.      The unskilled workers and peasants who made up masses of soldiers mowed down by machine guns suffered lots of deaths
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Fortunate ones were skilled laborers, who were exempt form serving due to need at home to train in industry
  22. Burst of patriotic enthusiasn
    • a.      Burst of patriotic enthusiasm that marked beginning of war deceived many into believing that the war was creating a new sense of community that meant end of class conflict
    •                                                               i.      David Lloyd George (Brit prime minister) and his optimism were misguided, since Great War didn’t end class conflict
  23. Economic impact
    • a.      Economic impact was felt
    •                                                               i.      Owners of large industries making weapons benefited
    • 1.      Despite public outrage, governments rarely limited enormous profits made by industrial barons
    • a.      In fact, they favored large industries when scarce raw materials were available
    •                                                             ii.      Small firms not essential
  24. inflation
    •                                                               i.      Inflationà inequities
    • 1.      Combo of full employment and high demand for scarce consumer goods caused prices to climb
    • a.      Skilled workers earned wages that helped them keep up with inflation, but it wasn’t true for unskilled workers or those in nonessential industries
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Only in great Britain did wages of workers outstrip prices; nowhere else
  25. Middle-class
    • 1.      Middle-class hit with it; both fixed income people and professional people
    • a.      Incomes remained stable during inflation and they fared less well than skilled workers