Bmsc210 Final p2

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Bmsc210 Final p2
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Bmsc210 Final p2
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  1. humoral immunity
    effects (e.g. specific resistance to a challenge of live bacteria or of a bacterial toxin) CAN BE TRANSFERRED to unimmunised animals by the transfer of serum obtained from immune animals
  2. cell-mediated immunity
    • -response that does not involve antibodies  
    • -involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen
  3. immediate-type hypersensitivity
    • inflammation is caused within minutes of antigen injection
    • -immunity is humoral (caused by antibodies)
  4. delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH)
    • a "delayed" inflammation that reaches a maximum intensity between 24 and 72 hours after application of the antigen
    • -immunity is cell-mediated(caused by cells)
  5. The number of distinct kinds of antibody molecules a mouse can make is estimated to be upwards of _______
    1,000,000,000
  6. self-nonself discrimination
    The ability to respond to foreign but not self molecules and self cells
  7. autoimmune disease
    • -diseases in which the immune system attacks its own molecules/cells
    • -autoimmunity represents a breakdown of the process of self-nonself discrimination.
  8. examples of autoimmune disease(5)
    name antigen
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • antigen: insulin producing B-islet cells of pancreas

    • myasthenia gravis
    • antigen: receptor for neural transmitter acetylcholine which is responsible for neurological control of muscle contraction

    • autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    • antigen: red blood cells

    • rheumatic heart disease
    • antigen: heart tissue following a Group A streptococcal infection

    • lupus erythematosus
    • antigens: many
  9. IgE antibody
    • -class of antibodie that bonds to mast cells evoking histamine release
    • -responsible for allergies
  10. The severity of the clinical state can often be correlated with the ___ of ___ induced against a pathogen
    • class
    • immunity
  11. allergens
    Antigens (usually commonly found in the environment) that induce allergic responses from IgE antibodies
  12. Allergens produce allergic reactions in some people and don't in others based the ___ used to fight the antigen
    • antibody
    • IgE class antibodies cause allergic reaction
  13. with regards to intracellular pathogens that can cause chronic disease:
    people that mount a cell-mediated response exclusive of antibody production have been found to have ___ disease
    limited
  14. with regards to intracellular pathogens that can cause chronic disease:
    people that produce antibody alone, or have a mixed cell-mediated/humoral response, usually suffer ___ and/or ___ disease.
    -(prototypic disease for these generalizations)
    • chronic
    • fatal
    • -The prototypic disease for which these generalizations were first made is leprosy
  15. The idea of vaccination can be extended beyond infectious disease to include the prevention of:(3)
    allergies, autoimmunity and different forms of cancer
  16. Why do transplants get rejected by the body?
    immune system recognizes the transplanted organ as foreign and consequently attacks it.
  17. Light chain of antibodies contain ___ amino acids.
    the first ___ are the variable region
    the last ___ are the constant region
    • 220
    • 110
    • 110
  18. -The heavy chain of antibodies are made of _ or _ roughly equally sized domains
    -the first domain is ___
    -the others determine ___
    -all of the last domains in a given class are ___
    -1 y shaped part of antibody can bond _ antigens
    -there are _ sets of heavy chain constants in man
    • 4 or 5
    • variable
    • class
    • identical
    • 7
    • 2
  19. The variable region of one heavy and one light chain constitute one ___ ___ ___.
    antigen binding site
  20. 7 different classes of antibody in man
    (amount of units)
    (function)
    IgM, -best activator of compliment. 5 units

    IgA, -variable, cannot cause compliment

    IgE -1 unit binds mast cells

    IgG1-IgG4-1 unit. G2 can cause compliment
  21. lattice formation
    when multiple antigens and antibodies bond together in an organized structure causing precipitation
  22. Four predictions of the clonal selection theory
    1-Each lymphocyte bears a single type of receptor with a unique specificity.

    2-Receptor occupation is required for cell activation.

    3-The differentiated effector cells derived from an activated lymphocyte will bear receptors of identical specificity as the parental cell.

    4-Those lymphocytes bearing receptors for self molecules will be deleted at an early stage.
  23. What are two examples of evidence for clonal selection theory?
    1: spleen cells have been found to contain precursor cells. When all precursor cells for a specific antigen are removed using radiation techniques, antibodies will still be made for other antigens implying that precursor cells are specific and different.

    2 When foreign antigens are injected into a formative chicken they are accepted as self-antigens and antibodies are not produced implying that self antigens are merely the antigens that have been continuous since early development (prebirth).
  24. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules:
    (two kinds)
    (General structure)
    • Class I MHC
    • Class II MHC
    • -both contain shallow groove to which a variety of peptides, of about 10 amino acids in length, can bind
  25. MHC cells have a highly ___ structure
    How is this practical?
    • variable
    • -It prevents an elusive virus from wiping out populations
  26. Class I MHC molecules
    • -found on the surface of all cells of the body
    • -represent the proteins found within the cell by bonding to samples of oligopeptides, used in intercellular protein synth, in their groove and displaying them on outside of cell
    • -body learns to recognize these as self antigens
    • -virus dna/mutations cause different protein samples to appear resulting in an immune response
  27. Class II MHC molecules
    • -found mainly on phagocytic cells
    • -present material from engulfed antigens on exterior of macrophage/B-cell allowing CD4 T cells to bond
  28. lymphoid organs
    • -places where antigen induces immune responses from precursor cells
    • ex:spleen, lymph nodes
  29. B cells
    • -precursor cell generated in bone marrow
    • -emigrate to lymphoid organs once mature
    • -have Antibody receptors on surface for binding antigen
    • -Phagocytes containing MHCII structures
    • -produces progeny that produce antibodies
  30. T cells
    • -generated in the thymus
    • -bond to peptides derived from the antigen that are bound to MHC molecules of cells
    • -CD4 , or CD4+ T cells, bind peptides bound to class II MHC (macrophagesB-cells)
    • -CD8+ T cells bind to peptides bound to MHC class I (any other cell)
    • -Proliferate after contact with antigen bearing MHC

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