MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials 1 -3

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kyleannkelsey
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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials 1 -3
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2013-04-12 00:07:09
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MIC 541 Exam Antimicrobials
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MIC 541-Exam 4- Antimicrobials 1 -3
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  1. What is Probenecid used for (as discussed in class)?
    • To be administered with Penicillin to improve its pharmokinetics and increase its levels and duration
    • To outcompete Penicillin for liver enzymes
  2. At what date did the current antibacterial discovery void begin?
    1987
  3. What was the last major discovery in Antibacterials?
    Daptomycin
  4. Lobar pneumonia has been greatly reduced, due to what type of discovery?
    Antibacterials
  5. What two antibacterials that were used to reduce Lobar pneumonia were discussed in class?
    • Sulfapyridine
    • Penicillin
  6. Atacids decrease uptake of what drugs?
    Fouroquinolones and acidic drugs
  7. Acidic drugs and flouroquinilones are poorly absopbed under what conditions?
    Acidic
  8. Kids can be treated like small adults in terms of absorbative abilities?
    False, children have higher pH in the stomach
  9. Geriatrics and children have what similar characteristic in terms of absorption:
    Higher pH in stomach
  10. What type of drugs enter the brain and humors of the eyes
    • most effectively?
    • uncharged non-polar drugs
  11. uncharged non-polar drugs enter what body parts most effectively?
    • The humor of the eyes
    • The brain
  12. What rules should you follow to determine Placenta or Breast milk transfer?
    No rules, need to look up instead
  13. In what drug state is elimination most likely to happen?
    Most polar state
  14. the most polar drug state is the one in which what is most likley to occur?
    Elimination
  15. Where are uncharged drugs metabolized?
    In the liver
  16. The liver is the site of metabolism (as a step in elimination) for what type of drugs?
    uncharged
  17. Metabolism usually does what wo things to drugs?
    • Destoxifies
    • Decreases activity
  18. What general body acitivity reduces drug toxicity and activity?
    Metabolism
  19. competition between similar molecules for a single enzyme type creates what?
    Dalayed elimination
  20. Delayed elimination can be caused by what liver enzyme related occurance?
    Competition
  21. What year did the Sulfanilamide disaster take place?
    1937
  22. What year did the Federal trade commission ban false advertising?
    1914
  23. What year was the pure food and drug act put into place?
    1906
  24. What was the coverage of teh pure food and drug act?
    • No saftey or efficacy
    • Must report purity
  25. What Act required saftey as a prerequisite for sales?
    Food and Drug Cosmetic Act 1938
  26. What year was the food drug and cosmetic act put into place, requiring drug saftey to be proven?
    1938
  27. When was the Keefauver and Harris Amendment passed?
    1962
  28. The Keefauver and Harris Amendment required what new characteristic of drugs?
    Safter AND efficacy
  29. What amendment (and year it was passed) was responsible for enforcing drug saftey and efficacy?
    Keefauver and Harris amendment passed 1962
  30. What is the total estimated time for developing a new antibiotic?
    9 years
  31. What phase of drug develpment takes the longest on average?
    Phase III
  32. FDA review of new drug application takes approximately how long?
    1-2 years
  33. What is the shortest phase (and the approx. time in years) of clinical drug trials?
    Phase 1, approx. 1 year
  34. Phase II of drug trials takes approx. how long?
    2 years
  35. How long are preclinical studies performed before filing with the FDA?
    1 year
  36. How long does it take to get to NDA filing in the new drug development process?
    7 years
  37. What is the first step in the process of developing a new drug?
    Drug Discovery
  38. What ways do we commonly perform Drug Discovery?
    • Soil Screening test
    • Chemically alter an existing drug
    • Computer modeling
    • Buy undeveloped drug from another company
  39. What is the purpose of Soil Screening?
    To find naturally produced antibacterials
  40. What is the first step in drug development?
    Preclinical trials
  41. What are three components of preclinical trials as outlined in lecture?
    • In vitro potency studies
    • Large scale production, packaging and stability
    • Animal studies for toxicity and efficacy
  42. Animal studies for toxicity and efficacy, large scale production and in vitro potency studies are performed during what stage of drug development?
    Preclinical trials
  43. What is the term for the initial FDA filing for a New drug?
    IND or Investigational New Drug Application
  44. Phase I of drug clinical trials includes what aspects?
    • Pharmacology
    • Dosage studies
    • Toxicity studies
  45. Pharmacology, dosage studies and toxicity studies are performed during what stage of clinical trials?
    Phase I
  46. What stage of clinical trials includes small groups of humans to obtain data on efficacy and saftey?
    Phase II
  47. Phase II of clinical trials includes what type of studies?
    Small clinical trials on humans to determine saftey and efficacy
  48. Phase III studies include what type of testing?
    Extensive large scal trials focused on the infections of interest
  49. Which phase of clinical trials is extensive and large scale, focusing on infections taht the drug will likely be indicated for?
    Phase III

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