25.3.1

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25.3.1
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2013-04-12 00:14:25
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HON 122
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  1. War and Revolution: 1917: __ created serious domestic turmoil in all states. Some were able to keep people support, while others were near collapse; __actually experienced ità __
    • total war
    • Russia
    • Russian Revolution
  2. I.                   Russian Revolution
    • a.      Failure of Revolution of 1905 to bring change to Russia, Tsar Nicholas II relied on army and bureaucracy
    • b.      WWI challenged tsar and economy
    •                                                               i.      The tsar, with strong sense of moral duty, took personal charge of armed forces, despite lack of training
    • c.       Industry couldn’t output weapons
    •                                                               i.      Armies suffered loss
  3. Tsar government
    • a.      Tsar government unprepared for 1914
    •                                                               i.      Surge of patriotic enthusiasm dissipated by government that didn’t trust people
    •                                                             ii.      Although middle classes and liberal aristocrats still hoped for constitutional monarchy, they were sullen over the tsar’s revocation of the political concessions made during the Revolution of 1905
    •                                                           iii.      Peasant discontent grew with worsening conditions
  4. Concentration of Russian industry
    •                                                               i.      Concentration of Russian industry in a few large cities made workers’ frustrations more evident and dangerous
    •                                                             ii.      Nicholas insulated from events by wife, Alexandra
    • 1.      Well-educated who’d fallen under influence of Rasputin, a Siberian peasant whom the tsarina regarded as holy since he could stop her hemophiliac son from bleeding
    • 2.      His influence made him a power bejind the throne; and he interfered in government affairs
  5. Discontent
                                                                  i.      Discontent of middle class, aristocrats, peasants, soldiers, and workers; even conservative aristocratsà Rasputin assassinated, but too late
  6. the March Revolution
    •                                                               i.      Beginning of March: strikes in Petrograd, where working-class women changed course
    • 1.      Weeks earlier, government introduced bread rationing in the city after the price of bread skyrocketed; many women who waited for bread were factory workersà March 8, International Woman’s Day, led to a strike as they marched through city, joined by others; PEACE AND BREAD
  7. Soldiers
    •                                                               i.      Soldiers ordered to open fire; they did at first, but then joined crowd
    • 1.      The Duma met and on March 12 declared it was assuming governmental responsibilityà provisional government on March 15th, when tsar abdicated
  8. One week
    •                                                               i.      One week: tsarist regime failed and moderate Constitutional Democrats established provisional government          
    • 1.      Represented middle-class and liberal aristocratic minority
    • Their program consisted of a liberal agenda that included working toward a parliamentary democracy and passing reforms that provided universal suffrage, civil equality, and an 8-hr workday
  9. Provisional government vs. sovielts
    • 1.      Soviet of Petrograd formed on March 1917, where they sprang up in army units and towns
    • a.      They represented radical interests of lower classes and were composed of socialists of various kinds
  10. Among the soviets
    • a.      Among them was Marxist Social Democratic Party, which formed in 1898 but divided in 1903 into two factions called the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Mensheviks wanted Social Democrats to be a mass electoral socialist party based on Western model; they were willing to cooperate temporarily in a parliamentary democracy while working toward the ultimate achievement of a socialist state
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Bolsheviks were small faction of Russian Social Democrats under Vladimir Ulianov (Lenin)
  11. Lenin
    • 1.      Received legal education and became a lawyer
    • 2.      1887: enemy of tsarist Russia when brother executed for planning to assassinate the tsar
    • 3.      Converted to Marxism and moved to St. Petersburg, where he helped organize an illegal group called the Union for the Libeartion of the Working Class
  12. Lenin's arrest
    • a.      Arrested and shipped to Siberia; released and went into exile in Switzerland and became leader of Bolshevik wing of Russian Social Democratic Parry
    • 2.      Under Lenin, the Bolsheviks became dedicated to violent revolution that would destroy capitalist system
    • a.      Small party of professional revolutionaries will accomplish task
  13. War gave Lenin...
    • 1.      War gave him hope that Europe was perfect for revolution, and when provisional government formed, he saw opportunity
    • 2.      Weeks later, with the connivance of the German High Command, who hoped to create disorder in Russia, Lenin, his wife, and followers, were shipped to Russia
  14. Lenin's arrival
    • 1.      His arrival in Russia led to new stage in Russian Revolution
    • a.      In his April Theses, he presented a plan for revolutionary action based on Marxist theory
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Not necessary for Russia to have bourgeois revolution before it could move toward socialism; Russia could move directly into it
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      He maintained that the soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants were powerful
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Bolsheviks must work to gain control of these groups and use them to overthrow the provisional government
  15. Bolshevik discontent
    1.      Bolsheviks also expressed discontent and aspirations of the people, promising an end to the war, the redistribution of all land to the peasants, the transfer of factories and industries from capitalists to committees of workers, and the relegation of government power from the provisional government to the soviets
  16. Late spring/ early summer
    a.      In late spring and early summer, while Bolsheviks set about winning over the masses to their program and gaining a majority in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets, the provisional government struggled to gain control of Russia against obstacles
  17. Peasants
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Peasants began land reform by seizing property on their own in March
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      The military situation: Petrograd soviet issued its Army Order No. 1 in March to all Russian military forces, encouraging them to remove their officers and replace them with committees composed of the “elected representatives of the lower ranks” of the army
  18. Soviet demand led to ..
    • 1.      It led to collapse of all discipline and created military chaos
    • 2.      When provisional government tried to create new military offensive in July,t he army dissolved as masses of peasants soldiers turned their backs on their officers and returned home to join their families in seizing land
  19. The Bolshevik Revolution
    •                                                               i.      July 1917: Lenin and the Bolsheviks were falsely accused of inciting an attempt to overthrow governmentà Lenin fled to Finland
    • 1.      Alexander Kerensky, a moderate socialist, became prime minister of provisional government
  20. General Lavr Kornilov
    • 1.      In September, when General Lavr Kornilov attempted to march on Petrograd and seize power, Kerensky released Bolsheviks from prison and turned to the Petrograd soviet for help.
    • a.      Forces never reached Petrograd, but Kerensky’s action strengthened the hands of the Petrograd soviet and showed Lenin how weak the government was
  21. End of October
    •                                                               i.      End of October, Bolsheviks achieved support of some soviets and member # grew
    • 1.      Lenin tried to persuade fellow Bolsheviks that now was time for overthrow
    • a.      Faced opposition within Bolshevik ranks, he gained support for his policy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      With Leon Trotsky as chairman of Petrograd soviet, the Bolsheviks were in a position to seize power in the name of the soviets
  22. November sixth
                                                                  i.      November 6, pro-soviet and pro-Bolshevik forces took control of Petrogradà collapse of governmentà the al-Russian Congress of Soviets affirmed transfer of powerà at second session, Lenin announced the new Soviet government, the Council of People’s Commissars, with himself as the head
  23. Problems
    •                                                               i.      Problems faced: Constituent Assembly, which was created by provisional government and supposed to meet in January 1918
    • 1.      Elections to assembly by universal suffrage defeated Bolshevisk, but Lenin broke them by force
  24. Lenin's realization
    •                                                               i.      Lenin realized importance of winning mass support as quickly as possible by fulfilling Bolshevik promises
    • 1.      In his first law, issued on the new regime’s first day in power, Lenin declared the land nationalized and turned it over to local rural land committees
  25. This ratified
    • a.      This ratified the peasants’ seizure of the land and assured the Bolsheviks of peasant support, especially against landlord attempts to regain power
    • b.      Lenin also met demands of urban workers by turning over control of the factories to committees of workers
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      To Lenin, it was temporary
  26. New government
    •                                                               i.      New government also introduced a number of social changes
    • 1.      Alexandra Killontai, supporter of revolutionary socialism while in exile in Switzerland, took the lead in pushing a Bolshevik program for women’s rights and social welfare reforms
    • a.      As minister of social welfare, she tried to provide health care for women and children by establishing “palaces for the protection of maternity and children”
  27. 1918-1920
                                                                  i.      Between 1918 and 1920, the new regime enacted a series of reforms that made marriage a civil act, legalized divorce, decreed the equality of men and women, and permitted abortions
  28. Kollontai
    • 1.      Kollontai was also instrumental in establishing a women’s bureau, known as Zhenotdel, within the Communist Party
    • a.      This bureau sent men and women to all parts of the Russian empire to explain the new social order
    • b.      Members of Zhenotdel were especially eager to help women with matters of divorce and women’s rights
  29. In eastern provinces
    • 1.      In the eastern provinces, several Zhenotdel members were murdered by males who opposed liberation for wives and daughters
    • a.      Communist social reforms were undone as Communists came to face more pressing matters, like survival of the new regime
  30. Lenin promised
    •                                                               i.      Lenin also promised peace, which wasn’t easy
    • 1.      March 3, 1918: the new Communist government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces
    • 2.      To his critics, he argued htat it made no difference since the spread of socialist revolution throughout Europe would make the treaty largely irrelevant
    • 3. Peace didnt occur
  31. Civil Aar
    •                                                               i.      Great opposition to the new Bolshevik regime, not only from groups loyal to the tsar but also from bourgeois and aristocratic liberals and anti-Leninists socialist,s including Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries
    •                                                             ii.      Thousands of Allied troops sent to Russia to bring Russia back into Great War
  32. 1918-1921
    •                                                               i.      1918-1921: Bolshevik Army was forced to fight on many fronts
    • 1.      First serious threat to the Bolsheviks came from Siberia, where a White (anti-Bolshevik) force under Admiral Alexander Kolchak pushed westward and advanced almost to the Volga River before being stopped
  33. Attacks
    • 1.      Attacks also from Ukrainians in ED and from Baltic regions
    • 2.      Mid-1919: White forces under General Anton Denikin, probably the most effective of the White generals, swept through Ukraine and advanced almost to Moscow
    • 3.      Late 1919: three separate White armies seemed to be closing in on the Bolsheviks but were pushed back
  34. 1920
    • 1.      1920: major White forces defeated, and Ukraine retaken
    • 2.      Next year: Communist regime regained control over the independent nationalist governments in the Caucasus
  35. royal fam 
    •                                                               i.      Royal family a victim
    • 1.      After tsar abdicated, he, his wife, and their 5 kids were taken into custody and moved to Tobolsk and Ekaterinburg, where they were murdered and bodies burned
  36. red army
    •                                                               i.      Red Army became well-disciplined and formidable fighting force, due to Leon Trotsky
    • 1.      As commissar of war, he reinstated the draft and recruited and gave commands to former tsarist army officers
    • 2.      Insisted on rigid discipline; soldiers who deserted or refused to obey orders were executed
    • 3.      Had advantage of interior lines of defense and was able to move its troops rapidly from one battlefront to the other
  37. disunity
    •                                                               i.      Disunity of the anti-Communist forces weakened their efforts
    • 1.      Political differences created distrust among the Whites and prevented them from cooperating effectively with each other
  38. some whites
    • a.      Some Whites, like Admiral Kolchak, insisted on restoring the tsarist regime, but others understood that only a more liberal and democratic program had any chance of success
    • b.      Since White forces were forced to operate on fringes of the Russian Empire, itw as difficult to achieve military cooperation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Political differences made it impossible

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