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2013-04-17 02:09:11

Test 4
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  1. ash
    total mineral content
  2. ash contains all of the essential minerals:
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • salt
    • iron
  3. is the ash content required on food label?
  4. Feline Urological Syndrom (FUS)
    or Feline Lower Urinary Track Disease (FLUTD)

    • excessive ash content has been implicated in FUS in cats
    • predominately young male cats
    • going to litter box w/ little to no urine
    • vomiting
    • little interest in food
  5. calcium and phosphorus are necessary for what?
    • normal bone development
    • rigidity for bones and teeth
    • aid in blood coagulation
    • nerve excitability
  6. proper ratio of calcium to phosphoru
    1.2-2 parts calcium to each part phosphorus


    (especially important during: growth, trauma, pregnancy (lactation)
  7. bone matrix is composed of
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • carbonate
    • citrate
    • magnesium
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • chloride
    • fluoride
    • trace elements
  8. main point of bone growth
  9. excellent source of calcium and phosphorus to pets
    bone meal
  10. phosphorus from animal sources is what %? from plant sources?
    • animal- 100%
    • plant- 50%
  11. Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (NSH)
    softening/deformation of bones due to failure of the bone matrix to solidify.

    • calcium deficiency during growth stage
    • fed all meat diet
  12. Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy
    • pain&soft tissue swelling around distal radius, ulna, tibia
    • lameness
    • fever
    • lethargy
    • anorexia

    occurs in young, rapidly growing dogs of large/giant breed
  13. Canine Hip Dysplasia
    • genetic
    • small acetabulum, mishapen femoral head

    lameness, pain in joint, lowered activity level

    • animals < 40#- remove femoral head
    • larger- hip replacement
  14. dogs known for hip dysplasia
    english bulldog
  15. OFA
    Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
  16. Degenerative Joint Disease
    • sudden onset of lameness
    • atrophy of muscles of the hip and hind limb
    • thought to be hereditary but can worsen by diet high in phosphorus, low in calcium, dense in energy
    • pen-fed young bulls
  17. why is Osteomalacia not seen as often anymore?
    commercial pet foods

    seen mostly in reptiles bc feeding homemade diet
  18. Rickets (Osteomalacia)
    • soft bones
    • young, growing animals
    • deficiency in phosphorus and vitamin D (must have D to absorb calcium to solidify bones)
    • failure to calcify=bowed appearance of legs&swollen joints
  19. Parturient Paresis
    • hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia in cattle following calving
    • inability to rise

    • cows-milk fever
    • dogs-eclampsia
    • mares-lactation tetany

    (give oral calcium paste, IV calcium, calcium supplements)
  20. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
    • necessary for moving calcium from bone
    • prevents continual bone growth

    produced by parathyroid gland
  21. Calcitonin
    inhibits bone resorption

    produced by thyroid gland
  22. Vitamin D
    • promotes intestinal calcium absorption
    • calcium absorption occurs in small intestine (mainly duodenum&jejunum)

    appears to function more as a hormone than vitamin
  23. these all effect magnesium absorption (all must be present and work together)
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • calcitonin
    • parathyroid hormone
  24. magnesium def. in puppies 
    • depression
    • incoordination
    • muscular weakness
    • hyperextension of forepaws
    • droopiness of ears&tails
  25. Magnesium def. in cats
    • muscular weakness
    • hyper-irritability
    • convulsions
    • reduced food intake
    • poor growth

  26. magnesium is used in many fundamental enzymatic reactions especially
    use of amino acids and fatty acids for energy
  27. hypomagnesemia
    grass tetany, grass staggers

    • cattle in spring, pastures lush&green
    • top off grass rather than whole sprig
    • top=low Mg levels
    • grass heavily fertilized w/ Nitrogen=inhibit Mg absorption 
    • also calves fed strictly milk diet

    signs: ataxia, seizures lapse into coma then death
  28. necessary minerals that serve as fluid regulators
    • sodium
    • chloride
    • potassium

    (help to maintain balance between fluids inside&outside of the cell)
  29. commonly known as electrolytes (fluid regulators)
    • sodium
    • chloride
    • potassium
  30. definition of electrolyte
    when dissolved into water disassociates into electrically charged ions, capable of conducting an electrical current
  31. essental element of plasma and other extracellular fluids
  32. sodium aids in
    • transfer of nutrients
    • removal of waste from cells
    • producing bile
  33. bile important in
    digestion of fats and carbs
  34. excess sodium is excreted by the

    (this is why need a lower sodium intake for geriatric, not as hard on kidney)
  35. needed for formation of hydrochloric acid in gastric juices which are used to digest protein
  36. Chloride is excreted in the
  37. causes os sodium chloride (NaCl) def
    • prolonged&severe diarrhea
    • vomiting
    • adrenal cortical insufficiency
  38. signs of sodium chloride (NaCl) def
    • fatigue
    • exhaustion
    • inability to maintain water balance
    • decreased intake of water
    • retarded growth
    • dry skin
    • hair loss
  39. water depravation can cause
    Sodium Chloride excess

    signs: thirst, pruritis, constripation, anorexia, seizures, death
  40. needed for proper enzyme, muscle, nerve function and fluid balance&appetite
  41. Potassium is absorbed in the
    small and large intestine
  42. Potassium def. signs
    • poor growth
    • restlessness
    • muscular paralysis
    • dehydration
    • lesions in heart and kidney

    causes: chronic diarrhea, vomiting, starvation, diabetes melitus
  43. high levels of Potassium have been known to affect absorption of
  44. most nutritional deficiencies are unheard of due to
    supplementation in commercial pet foods
  45. Iron
    needed in transporting oxygen& for enzymes in energy utilization 

    combined with large protein makes hemoglobin, the iron containing compound in RBC
  46. need RBC to 
    carry oxygen and exchange CO2
  47. Iron absorption is rapid, appearing in RBC in about
    4 hours after ingestion
  48. hemopoiesis
    formation of RBCs
  49. largest utilization of iron
  50. anemia
    result of def. of iron

    symptoms: reduced appetite, diarrhea, rough hair coat, increased susceptibility to disease

    can be from hereditary, pathological, or nutritional origins
  51. good iron sources
    • meat (liver)
    • greens
    • supplements
  52. why is nutritional anemia more likely to occur in the young during suckling period?
    • milk is extremely low in iron
    • liver of newborn has a supply of iron that normally lasts through to weaning but may not due to nutritional def in the dam
  53. how do we test for anemia?
    PCV %

    • microhematocrit tube, centrifuge 3 mins (will show the diff levels of plasma, WBC, RBC)
    • blood chemistry analyzer

    *always take two samples to compare
  54. aplastic anemia
    • bone marrow fails to produce essential blood elements
    • does not respond to anti-anemia therapies
  55. hemolytic anemia
    shortened lifespan of RBC and bones inability to compensate for the decreased lifespan 

    *body destroying its own RBC
  56. hypoplastic anemia
    varying degrees of electrolytes under development
  57. parasitic anemia
    due to absence of RBC due to parasite ingestion
  58. normal PCV/microhematocrit
  59. blood transfusion 1st vs 2nd
    • 1st time- do not have to blood type test
    • 2nd- must blood type test bc developed antibodies from first transfusion

    (transfusion performed if PCV 10-15%)
  60. zinc improves
    immune system
  61. zinc
    • trace mineral
    • common in natural feedstuffs
    • supplemented in most commercial pet foods due to bodys inability to absorb it efficiently
  62. signs of zinc def
    • hypogonadism (small genitals)
    • skeletal deformities
    • corneal lesions
    • impaired immune response
  63. manganese essential for:
    • normal rerpoduction
    • glucose utilization&production of insulin
    • production of prothrombin (blood clotting agent)

    *supplemented in pet foods
  64. manganese occurs mainly in the body's
    • liver
    • kidney
    • pancreas
    • bones
  65. what interferes with absorption of manganese?
    excessive calcium and phosphorus
  66. copper used for
    • mobilizing iron for hemoglobin synthesis
    • maturation of collagen, pigmentation of hair, neural transmission

    (iron def anemia can be secondary to copper def)
  67. copper main storage sites
    • liver
    • kidney
    • brain

    (absorption in stomach and upper small intestine)
  68. copper deficiencies in cat
    • decreased plasma
    • connective tissue defects in aorta
  69. copper def in dogs
    dwarfism (alaskan malamutes)
  70. dogs with predisposition to copper toxicity
    (Bedlington Terrier Copper Associated Hepatopathy or Copper Storage Disease)

    • bedlington terrier
    • west highland white
    • doberman
    • cocker spaniel

    (copper levels high in liver but serum concentration low-liver failure)
  71. copper def in ruminants
    (enzootic ataxia, swayback, falling disease)

    anemia and central nervous system disorder

    also recorded in pigs
  72. selenium
    • trace mineral formerly thought to be a toxin
    • required growth factor
  73. appears to be an etiological agent in myopathies (disease of muscle tissue)
  74. selenium toxicity
    garlic like odor to breath

  75. selenium and which vitamin go hand in hand?
  76. selenium def
    calves, lambs, foals

    white muscle disease or enzootic muscular dystrophy

    signs: dyspnea, frothy nasal discharge, irregular heart rate

    most die/if survive: weak&dyspnic 
  77. 2 diseases in pigs related to selenium def
    • Mulberry Heart Disease
    • Hepatosis dietetica (degenerative disease of liver- massive hepatic necrosis&sudden death)
  78. selenium def uncommon in dogs but if does occur creates
    myocardial necrosis

    (no occurrences in cats)
  79. selenium found in
    high protein sources such as wheat or soy (natural sources)
  80. selenium toxicity due to

    usually ruminants with accidental unlimited access to feed

    • symptoms: listlessness, hair loss, soreness or sloughing of hooves, lameness, cardiac atrophy
    • acute toxicity: blindness, abdominal pain, respiratory arrest
  81. Iodine
    • synthesis of 2 hormones produced by thyroid gland
    • these hormones necessary for regulation of cell oxidation

    normally supplemented to meet bodies requirments
  82. iodine def
    cats- goiter, alopecia, abnormal calcium metabolism, death

    dogs- goiter, skeletal deformities, alopecia, lethargy, timidity 
  83. trace minerals
    • cobalt
    • nickel
    • sulphur
    • molybdenum
    • aluminum
    • silicon
    • chromium
    • fluorine 
  84. cobalt
    • component in vitamin B12
    • def. unlikely to occur if adequate B12 in diet

    (improve B12 with leafy greens)
  85. nickel
    no levels established

    sources: rice, legumes, oats, most veggies
  86. sulphur
    no levels established

    occurs in amino acids cystine and methionine
  87. molybdenum
    important in formation of uric acid

    toxicity signs: chronic diarrhea, ill-thrift, depigmentation of hair
  88. aluminum
    essential to fertility and immune system
  89. silicon
    • important in bone mineralization
    • essential trace element
  90. chromium
    essential to metabolism of carbs

    (may be related to onset of diabetes mellitus in primates)
  91. fluorine
    necessary for bones and teeth

    • (sources: toothpaste, some cities in water)
    • *human toothpaste too much fluorine for animals-use baking soda&water into a paste with finger
  92. trace minerals are
    minerals that do not really have an established amount just know they are needed.
  93. fat soluble vitamins
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  94. Vitamin A important for
    • vision
    • cell mitosis
  95. Vitamin A sources
    fruits&veggies (orange, red, yellow)

    • in nature: vitamin A precursors, carotenoids
    • most common: beta-carotene
  96. Vitamin A stored in 
    • the liver (as retinyl palmitate) 
    • when needed changed into& circulates in serum as an alcohol (retinol)

    absorbed rapidly in small intestine
  97. gives yellow pigments in plants
  98. retinol-binding protein (RBP)
    retinol binds with a special protein which escorts it to the cells that utilize it
  99. Vitamin A def
    night blindness

    (usually confined to young)
  100. do dogs or cats utilize carotene efficiently?

    cats rely on stored vitamin A in animal or fish oils
  101. deficiencies of vitamin A in cat not common because..
    cats store large quantities of vitamin A in the liver and kidneys
  102. Vitamin D important in
    regulation of calcium metabolism

    (actually functions as more of a hormone^)
  103. another name for Vitamin D
  104. deficiency of vitamin D in cats and dogs causes
  105. sources of vitamin D
  106. vitamin D toxicitiy
    depressed growth, mineralized soft tissues (heart, lung, kidney)
  107. Vitamin E also known as
  108. must be with vitamin E in order to work
    • *selenium
    • polyunsaturated fat
    • sulphur amino acids
  109. sources of vitamin E
    • plants&grains (esp:soybean&wheat germ oils)
    • carnivores obtain from liver&adipose tissue
  110. Brown Bowel Syndrome
    • def in vitamin E
    • maple-sugar color in small intestine
    • harsh haircoat
    • alopecia
    • moist dermatitis
    • diarrhea
    • fertility problems
    • muscle weakness
  111. Steatitis or Pansteatitis
    • yellow fat disease
    • (inflammation of fatty tissue)
  112. Vitamin K important for 
    Clotting (helps to activate Prothrombin) 
  113. def of this vitamin is uncommon in domestic, more often in poultry and cattle bc of diets containing antibiotics which supress the gut microbial population
    Vitamin K

    (gut microbial synthesizes vitamin K)
  114. rare occurrence of vitamin K def in dogs&cats
    ingestion of rat poison
  115. sources of vitamin K
    • green leafy plants and veggies
    • (alfalfa&spinach)
  116. Sweet Clover Poisoning
    when this hay is cut if not allowed to dry, molds and produces toxin called coumarin or dicoumarol. Coumarin blocks vitamin K production of prothrombin.

    Results in prolonged clotting time, hemorrhage, fatal anemia
  117. Coumarin
    toxin produced when sweet clover hay molds

    blocks vitamin K production of prothrombin
  118. Coumarin used for
    • rat poison
    • anticoagulation drugs in cardiac patients
  119. vitamin C also known as
    Ascorbic Acid
  120. this vitamin prevents scurvy
    vitamin C
  121. Vitamin C is ______ soluble? 
  122. the body manufactures this vitamin but does not store it well, it is readily excreted in urine
    Vitamin C
  123. Vitamin C is essential in
    • humans
    • primates
    • some birds
    • guinea pigs (daily)
    • pigs
    • fish
  124. signs of vitamin C def
    sores in mouth, anemia, epiphyseal fractures

    (most commonly in young, rapid, growing dogs)
  125. Thiamin (B1) sources
    • cereals, cereal brans (mainly)
    • meat, legumes, green veggies, fish, fruits, milk
  126. originally factor in preventing beriberi (neurological disorder) 
    thiamin (B1)
  127. thiamin def signs
    • ataxia
    • mydriasis (dilated pupils)
    • convulsions

    • -dogs affected if pet food processed by excessive heat
    • -horse&pigs eat bracken fern which has an enzyme to prevent absorption of thiamin
  128. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) sources 
    dairy products and organ meats (kidneys, heart, lungs)
  129. B2
  130. Riboflavin (B2) def
    dogs- conjunctivitis, dermatitis, glossitis, muscular weakness

    fowl- decreased egg production, decreased hatchability, poor growth, curled toe paralysis-toes curled inwards&under (chicken walks on hocks)
  131. Niacin sources
    various plant and animal tissues
  132. Niacin essential for
    normal carbohydrate metabolism
  133. Black Tongue
    niacin def in dogs characterized by stomatitis, diarrhea, anemia, hemorrhagic diarrhea

    (pellagra in humans)
  134. Pantothenic Acid sources
    in all plant and animal tissues
  135. essential for all animals except ruminant which synthesize in rumen
    Pantothenic Acid
  136. main problem with def of pantothenic acid
  137. B1
  138. Vitamin B6
    involved in metabolism of amino acids

    (def rare)
  139. 3 forms of Vitamin B6
    • *pyridoxine (most nutritional value)
    • pyridoxal
    • pyridoxamine
  140. mydriasis
    dilated pupils
  141. Folic Acid most important for

    (involved in synthesis of amino acids&DNA)
  142. folic acid is supplied in most
    • pasture grasses
    • commercial pet foods
  143. Megaloblastic anemia
    def of folic acid resulting in abnormal RBC production
  144. Vitamin H
  145. Biotin
    Vitamin H
  146. Biotin sources
    found naturally in most foods
  147. experimental def of biotin
    • calves- paralysis
    • pigs- dermatitis
    • dogs&cats- combination of both
  148. synthesized in the liver from amino aicds
  149. choline deficiency
    pigs&calves- incoordination, weakness, dyspnea, hock swelling

    dogs&cats- not likely
  150. "Perosis" (chondrodystrophy)
    deforming of legs bones due to def of choline in poultry