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Difference between endocrine and exocrine secretion
Endocrine: Direct release of chemicals into body tissue spaces or fluids. No duct pathway
Exocrine: release of chemicals to a location outside the body. Has a duct that leads the chemicals there.
List the Major Endocrine Organs of the body. (there are 16)
Epiphysis (pineal), Hypothalmus, Anterior and Posterior Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, thymus, heart, liver, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, pancreas, kidney, gut, ovary, placenta, testes.
Know all the hormones, where they are produced, and their primary effects on the body.
Name the 5 hormones that violate the classical definition of a hormone.
- 1. Prostaglandins
- 2. Growth factors and Oncogene products
- 3. APUdoma
- 4. Vitamin D
- 5. Renin-angiotensin system
Difference between a glycoprotein and a protein/peptide.
Glycoproteins are proteins that have carbohydrate side chains whereas proteins and peptides do not.
What is the hormone-family concept?
Groups of similar proteins with similar genes that can therefore cross react with each others receptors and have similar effects
Biogenic amines, steriods, and iodinated amino acids are made how?
Biogenic amines: decarboxylating amino acids (catecholamines)
Steroids: derivations from cholesterol
Iodinated Amio Acids: modified tyrosine amino acids that are bound to iodine.
hormones of pineal, posterior and anterior pituitary glands, and the thyroid.
anterior: GH, TSH, ACTH, PRL, B-endorphin, B-LPH, MSH, FSH
Posterior: Oxytocin, AVP
Thyroid: CT, T3
Proteins and amines are hydro____ they attach to __________ receptors and initiate ________________ to change cellular activity.
- 1. philic
- 2. transmembrane/membrane
- 3. secondary messangers
Steriods and iodinated hormones work slower/faster have longer/shorter lasting effects than proteins and amines, are hydro____, and once attached to receptors on the DNA or mitochondrial DNA, __________
slower, longer, phobic, change DNA transcription and thereby alter protein levels in the cell.
Name the 4 types of hormone secretion regulation.
- 1. endogenous rhythms
- 2. endocrine regulation
- 3. substrate regulation
- 4. negative feedback
Steroid, thyroid, and small peptide hormones are often bound to ________ which are made in the _______
carrier proteins/hormone binding globulins
What are the effects of hormone binding globulins?
1. increase [ ] of a hormone in the plasma
2. increase the half life of hormones in the plasma
3. allow tissues throughout the body to be exposed to similar [ ] of a hormone.
What is up and down regulation?
Cells using exocytosis (up) to expose transmembrane binding receptors and endocytosis (down) to hide them inside the cell.
Agonist effects can be broken down into ____ categories which are ___________
Antagonist effects can be broken down into _____ and ____
Excessive exposure to hormones can do what to a cell?
The cell will become desensitized to the effect of the hormone.
Thyroid hormones are regulated with?
How are steroid hormones changed to make them easier to excrete?
They are either modified or conjugated to glucuronides or sulfates to make them more water soluble.
What are neurosecretory cells?
Nerve cells in the hypothalmus that have their axon terminals positioned next to capillary blood vessels.
List the pathway of hormones that are excreted at the median eminance.
Median eminance -> hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessel -> anterior pituitary
Name the two hormones produced by the posterior pituitary gland, their hormone family, and their similarities
1. oxytocin, vasopressin
2. OT-AVP hormone family
3. Both stimulate smooth muscle and share 7 of their 9 amino acids
Name the glycoprotein hormones
- 1. growth hormone
- 2. follicle stimulating hormone
- 3. lutienizing hormone
What protein, produced by the anterior pituitary, can be broken down into several hormones?
The thyroid is made up of what kinds of cells and what do they do?
Thyroid follicles/follicular cells. They absorb iodine, attach it to tyrosine to make thyroglobulin and secrete it into the follicular lumen where the tyrosine parts of the thyroglobulin bond and form T3 and T4, but are still part of thyroglobulin
3 categories of endocrine disorders.
- 1. hyperactivity
- 2. hypoactivity
- 3. inappropriate activity