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List and briefly describe the major functions of the kidneys
- Regulate the ionic composition of the blood
- Regulate the pH of the blood
- Excrete more hydrogen ion or excrete less hydrogen ion
- Regulate blood volume (conserve more water or eliminate more water)
- Regulate blood pressure (Hormone renin)
- Help to regulate blood osmolality (appropriate ratio of solutes to the amount of water)
- Calcitriol (Precursor of vitamin D)
- Erythropoietun (production of RBC)
- Excretion of waste
- Excretion of foreign/excess substances
Describe the general shape and location of the kidneys.
- Bean Shaped in humans
- Approximately at waste level in humans
- Between last thoracic vertebra and 3rd lumbar vertebra
What do we mean when we describe the kidneys as “retroperitoneal”?
Not enclosed by peritoneal
What are the two main regions of the kidneys ?
- Renal Cortex: Smooth outer part
- Medulla: Inner Part (triangular shaped structures)
Describe the appearance of the renal medulla.
- Triangular shaped (pyramids)
- Rectangular shaped between them (columns)
Name the main blood vessels that supply the kidneys.
- Renal Artery (takes blood to kidneys
- Renal Vein (takes blood away from kidneys)
Identify the vessels through which a blood cell would pass in going from the afferent arterioles to the peritubular venules.
- Afferent Arterioles
- Glomerular Capillaries
- Efferent Arterioles
- Peritubular Capillaries
- Peritubular Venules
What is a nephron ?
Functional unit of the kidney
Name the two main parts of a nephron.
- Renal corpusole (blood is filtered)
- Renal Tubrile (filtered fluid is processed) (filtrate=fluid)
List and define the three basic processes involved in urine formation.
- Glomerular Filtration: water and solutes move from glomerulus to the capsule
- Tubular Re-absorption: Most of the water and the useful solutes are returned to the blood
- Tubular Secretion: Other kinds of wastes (drugs, ions) are added to the blood
What causes filtration in the glomerulus ?
- Porous capillaries and high blood pressure
- Efferent art. is smaller than afferent artery
Why is the volume of fluid filtered by the renal corpuscle much higher than in other capillaries of the body ?
- Glomerulus has a large surface area
- High pressure occurs bc trying to filter a large amount of blood
What types of molecules pass through the membrane of the glomerulus ?
Small molecules (glucose, amino acids, water)
What types of molecules and substances should not pass through the membrane of the
Big Molecules (Proteins, Blood Cells)
Briefly describe the three main pressures that affect glomerular filtration.
- Blood Hydrostatic Pressure: if an organisms blood pressure is low, less liquid is filtered out
- Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure: from liquid that starts to fill up capsule
- Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure: pressure of liquid going back into the blood stream
Identify some of the forces which affect the glomerular filtration rate.
- Blood Pressure
- Blood Volume
- Kidneys can auto regulate (try to fix it on its own)
- Kidney can produce hormones
Generally speaking, what percentage of the filtrate is typically reabsorbed ?
In which part of the nephron does most tubular reabsorption occur ?
Most will happen in 1st part of Henels loop and proximal convoluted tubule.
Name some of the solutes which are reabsorbed.
What are the two general processes (routes) by which a solute may be reabsorbed ?
- Some material pass through gaps of adjacent cells
- Most things go out through tubule cells (active transport)
Define transport maximum.
Upper limit on how fast a transporter molecule can work
Distinguish between obligatory water reabsorption and facultative water reabsorption. Where does each type of reabsorption occur most commonly ?
- Abligatory Water Re-absorption: Has to happen. Happens in collecting duct.
- Faciltated Water Re-absorption: Variabled. Happens in PCT.
What is tubular secretion ?
Transfer of materials from the blood an tubule cells into the filtrate.
Name some substances which are moved by tubular secretion.
- Hydrogen Ion (if body to acid)
- Certain Medications (Penicillin)
Name two important results of tubular secretion.
- 1. Helps to control the pH of the blood
- 2. Elimination of certain substances from the body
Name four hormones which affect tubular reabsorption and secretion and briefly discuss their effects.
- 1. ADH (anti diarrheic hormone): increases permiability of collecting duct, less water in urine
- 2. Aldosterone (Adrenal Gland): Area of PCT, Works by increasing the amount of sodium that's reabsorbed
- 3. ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide): made by rt atrium, cause less reabsorbtion of sodium, more water in filtrate
- 4. Papathormone (Parathyroid Gland): Raises the amount of calcium in the blood
How does the process of forming concentrated urine differ from the process of forming dilute urine ?
- To make urine more dilute: Can add water to it or can take some of the glucose out Body can not add more water to it so have to take some glucose out
- To make more concentrated urine: take out more water. Anti diarrheic hormone would open the collecting duct
What is urinalysis ?
Analysis of the volume, physical, chemical, microscopic properties of urine
Briefly describe the characteristics of normal urine.
- Color: is yellow from breakdown of RBC
- Shade: of urine depends on (concentration, diet, dyes in vitamins)
- Turbidity: of urine (turbidity=cloudiness) (clear normal) (mucous, bacterial growth make cloudy)
- Odor: (fresh doesn't smell bad, if sat ammonia smell, smell varies with diet, fruity means diabetes
- pH: varies with diet (more acid) more alkaline in vegetarians
- specific gravity: (urine heavier then water), varies with concentration
List and briefly describe abnormal constituents that might be detected during urinalysis.
- Blood (white cells mean infection)
- Protein (albumin) in blood
- microbes (should not be microbes if collected using catheter)
Briefly describe the process of dialysis.
- Dialysate (optimal levels)
- Blood --> Dialysis Tubing
- waste leaves dialysis tubing
Name the structures through which urine passes on its way from the collecting ducts to the urinary bladder.
- Collecting Duct
- Papillary Duct (in renal pyramid)
- Minor Calyx
- Major Calyx
- Renal Pelvis
- Urinary Bladder
Describe the location of the ureters.
- Connect kidneys to bladder
- Outside retral peritoneum
What forces cause urine to move through the ureters ?
- Hydrostatic Pressure
What prevents urine from flowing backwards from the bladder to the ureters ?
- physiological sphincter
- Buildup of pressure suppress openings which prevents backflow
Describe the shape and location of the urinary bladder.
- Shape depends on fullness
- pear shaped when full
- Location in abdomen posterior to pubic synthesis
What is the trigone ?
Triangle shape between 2 urithra openings
Describe the structures which control the opening of the urethra to the outside.
- sphincter at the base of the urithra
- Internal urithral sphincter: involuntary
- External urithral sphincter: voluntary
What is micturition ?
Technical term for urination
Describe the control of micturition.
- As the bladder fills with urine the pressure wil increase and the blatter will stretch
- Stretch recepters are nerve endingsthat signals the spinal chord
- Spinal chord start mictrition reflex
- Detrusor will start to contract
What is the urethra ?
- Tube leading from floor of the bladder to the outside
- Longer in males
- more complex
Generally speaking, how does its structure differ in males as compared to females ?
- go through prostate gland and penis in males
- Shorter in female make them more susceptible to UTI
Name and briefly describe the other body systems which participate in waste management.
- GI tract gets rid of food (some water, salts, CO2)
- Lungs excrete CO2 and water vapor
- Sweet eliminates some water
- Liver helps detoxify waste
- Blood transports waste,
- buffers in blood help minimize pH change