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need to belong
refers to the fundamental human motivation to form and maintain close, lasting relationships with other individuals.
Need to Belong- 2 Requirements
- Regular, positive social contact
- With in framework of ongoing relationship
Anything that draws two or more people together, making them want to be together and possibly to form a lasting relationship
5 main principals of attraction
- Physical attractiveness
- Similarity vs. complementarity
- Liking those who do things for us or make us feel good
- Liking those who like us
- Geographical location
- Watergate study showed that people that lived closer to each other were more likely to become friends
- exposure; what is familiar is good
- similar choice of living; maybe similar beliefs
Physical Attractiveness Stereotype
assumption that attractive people possess other positive qualities
What kind of faces are Attractive?
- Composite faces
- Attractive features do not tend to differ too much from average
- Attractive faces are symmetrical
Charlie’s Angel Effect vs. the Radiating Effect
- when people see lots of other attractive strangers and people surrounding you, you’ll get rated as less attractive by comparison than you would if you were surrounded by unattractive strangers (Charlie’s Angel Effect).
- However, if you are hanging around with attractive FRIENDS and you are grouped into a high status social group of “attractive people”, you’ll be rated as more attractive than you would if you appeared with less appealing friends (Radiating Effect of Beauty).
Similarity vs. Complimentary
- Similarity wins
- Opposites do not attract
Reward Theory of Attraction
We like those who reward us or who we associate with rewarding events (e.g., good feelings)
Reward Theory, association, Lewicki experiment
- This can also work by association – we’ll like people we ASSOCIATE with people who have given us rewards or made us feel good!
- Lewicki (1985) liking-by-association
- 2 women (A & B) were rated as looking equally friendly by control group
- Some Pp’s had interacted with a friendly experimenter who looked like A
Why do we like people that like us
why is exclusion so distressing?
- Remember - Need to belong is universal, powerful motivation
- Rejection thwarts that need
- Hence rejection (or other social exclusion) will cause strong behavioral reactions
Know and understand the 3 domains that rejection has negative effects
- Physical:Lack of social connectedness impairs immune system functioning, poor quality sleep, increased likelihood of death
- Psychological: Socially excluded people have high rates of psychological problems (depression, suicide, anxiety)
- Social: Aggression among young and old people linked to social exclusion
Why do people reject others?
- Deviance (being different)
- I like Prince, you don’t… therefore, I reject you
- Probably automatic
- Being aggressive
- People avoid violence
- Withdrawing yourself
- If you withdraw from social contact, we will withdraw from you