refers to the fundamental human motivation to form and maintain close, lasting relationships with other individuals.
Need to Belong- 2 Requirements
Regular, positive social contact
With in framework of ongoing relationship
Anything that draws two or more people together, making them want to be together and possibly to form a lasting relationship
5 main principals of attraction
Similarity vs. complementarity
Liking those who do things for us or make us feel good
Liking those who like us
Watergate study showed that people that lived closer to each other were more likely to become friends
exposure; what is familiar is good
similar choice of living; maybe similar beliefs
Physical Attractiveness Stereotype
assumption that attractive people possess other positive qualities
What kind of faces are Attractive?
Attractive features do not tend to differ too much from average
Attractive faces are symmetrical
Charlie’s Angel Effect vs. the Radiating Effect
when people see lots of other attractive strangers and people surrounding you, you’ll get rated as less attractive by comparison than you would if you were surrounded by unattractive strangers (Charlie’s Angel Effect).
However, if you are hanging around with attractive FRIENDS and you are grouped into a high status social group of “attractive people”, you’ll be rated as more attractive than you would if you appeared with less appealing friends (Radiating Effect of Beauty).
Similarity vs. Complimentary
Opposites do not attract
Reward Theory of Attraction
We like those who reward us or who we associate with rewarding events (e.g., good feelings)
Reward Theory, association, Lewicki experiment
This can also work by association – we’ll like people we ASSOCIATE with people who have given us rewards or made us feel good!
Lewicki (1985) liking-by-association
2 women (A & B) were rated as looking equally friendly by control group
Some Pp’s had interacted with a friendly experimenter who looked like A
Why do we like people that like us
why is exclusion so distressing?
Remember - Need to belong is universal, powerful motivation
Rejection thwarts that need
Hence rejection (or other social exclusion) will cause strong behavioral reactions
Know and understand the 3 domains that rejection has negative effects
Physical:Lack of social connectedness impairs immune system functioning, poor quality sleep, increased likelihood of death
Psychological: Socially excluded people have high rates of psychological problems (depression, suicide, anxiety)
Social: Aggression among young and old people linked to social exclusion
Why do people reject others?
Deviance (being different)
I like Prince, you don’t… therefore, I reject you
People avoid violence
If you withdraw from social contact, we will withdraw from you