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herbivores eat mainly what?
both autotrophs (plants and algeal matter) and animals
regularly consume dead organic matter
is the breakdown of food particles outside of cells
food particles are engulfed by endocytosis and digested within food vacuoles
are required by cells and must be obtained from dietary sources
what are the 4 classes of essential nutrients
- –Essential amino acids
- –Essential fatty acids
Animals require how many amino acids and can synthesize about half from molecules in their diet
essential amino acids, how are they obtained
The remaining amino acids, the essential amino acids, must be obtained from food in preassembled form
A diet that provides insufficient essential amino acids causes malnutrition called protein deficiency
essential fatty acids
- Animals can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need
- The essential fatty acids are certain unsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained from the diet
- Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare
are organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts
how many essential vitamins
what are the two categories of vitamins
Vitamins are grouped into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble
Water soluble vitamins, if taken in too high a quantity are removed in what?
in the urine
Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the what and what?
Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissues–These can be more toxic in large quantities
Minerals are simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts
- is the result of a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires
- not getting enough calories
is the long-term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients
An undernourished individual will (5 things)
- – Use up stored fat andcarbohydrates
- – Break down its ownproteins
- – Lose muscle mass
- – Suffer protein deficiency ofthe brain
- – Die or suffer irreversibledamage
malnourishment can cause
- deformities, disease, and death
- malnourishment can be corrected by changes to a diet
- sift particles in the water
- Many aquatic animals are suspension feeders, which sift small food particles from the water
live in or on food source
suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host
- eat a relatively large pieces of food
- (snake eating deer)
- is the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough to absorb
- –In chemical digestion, the process of enzymatic hydrolysis splits bonds in molecules with the addition of water
is the uptake of nutrients by body cells
is the passage of undigested material out of the digestive compartment
the oral cavity is
the first stage of digestion is mechanical
deliver saliva to lubricate food
Teeth chew food into smaller particles that are exposed to salivary what, initiating breakdown of glucose polymers
The tongue shapes food into a what and provides help with swallowing
The region we call our throat is the what?
- a junction that opens to both the esophagus and the trachea (windpipe)
Food is pushed along by what, rhythmic contractions of muscles in the wall of the canal
sphincters do what?
Valves called sphincters regulate the movement of material between compartments
stomach does what and secretes what?
stores food and secretes gastric juice, which converts a meal to acid chyme
what is gastric juice made up of?
Gastric juice is made up of hydrochloric acid and the enzyme
- protects the stomach lining from gastric juice
- Cells in the lining are renewed every 3 days
- Gastric ulcers, lesions in the lining, are caused mainly by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
Parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions separately
Chief cells secrete inactive pepsinogen, which is activated to pepsin when mixed with hydrochloric acid in the stomach
The pancreas produces proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, protein-digesting enzymes that are activated after entering the duodenum•Its solution is alkaline and neutralizes the acidic chyme
bile does what and what organ is it in
- In the small intestine, bile aids in digestion and absorption of fats
- Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
- The small intestine is the longest section of the alimentary canal
- It is the major organ of digestion and absorption
what 3 parts make up the small intestine
- The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum, and the ilium
- The small intestine is longer in herbivores than in carnivores–Harder to digest vegetable matter
the colon is the what intestine?
what is a cecum?
- The colon of the large intestine is connected to the small intestine
- The cecum aids in the fermentation of plant material and connects where the small and large intestines meet
- The human cecum has an extension called the appendix, which plays a very minor role in immunity
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