Animal Nutrition

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  1. herbivores eat mainly what?
    mainly autotrophs
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    hydra nutrition
  3. carnivores eat
    other animals
  4. omnivores eat
    both autotrophs (plants and algeal matter) and animals
  5. detrivores
    regularly consume dead organic matter
  6. extracellular digestion
    is the breakdown of food particles outside of cells
  7. intracellular digestion
    food particles are engulfed by endocytosis and digested within food vacuoles
  8. essential nutrients
    are required by cells and must be obtained from dietary sources
  9. what are the 4 classes of essential nutrients
    • –Essential amino acids
    • –Essential fatty acids
    • –Vitamins
    • –Minerals
  10. Animals require how many amino acids and can synthesize about half from molecules in their diet
  11. essential amino acids, how are they obtained
    The remaining amino acids, the essential amino acids, must be obtained from food in preassembled form
  12. protein deficiency
    A diet that provides insufficient essential amino acids causes malnutrition called protein deficiency
  13. essential fatty acids
    • Animals can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need
    • The essential fatty acids are certain unsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained from the diet
    • Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare
  14. vitamins
    are organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts
  15. how many essential vitamins
  16. what are the two categories of vitamins
    Vitamins are grouped into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble
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    essential amino acids
  18. Water soluble vitamins, if taken in too high a quantity are removed in what?
    in the urine
  19. Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the what and what?
    Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissues–These can be more toxic in large quantities
  20. minerals
    Minerals are simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts
  21. undernourishment
    • is the result of a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires
    • not getting enough calories
  22. malnourishment
    is the long-term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients
  23. An undernourished individual will (5 things)
    • – Use up stored fat andcarbohydrates
    • – Break down its ownproteins
    • – Lose muscle mass
    • – Suffer protein deficiency ofthe brain
    • – Die or suffer irreversibledamage
  24. malnourishment can cause
    • deformities, disease, and death
    • malnourishment can be corrected by changes to a diet
  25. suspension feeders
    • sift particles in the water
    • Many aquatic animals are suspension feeders, which sift small food particles from the water
  26. substrate feeder
    live in or on food source
  27. fluid feeders
    suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host
  28. bulk feeders
    • eat a relatively large pieces of food
    • (snake eating deer)
  29. digestion
    • is the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough to absorb
    • –In chemical digestion, the process of enzymatic hydrolysis splits bonds in molecules with the addition of water
  30. absorption
    is the uptake of nutrients by body cells
  31. elimination
    is the passage of undigested material out of the digestive compartment
  32. the oral cavity is
    the first stage of digestion is mechanical
  33. salivary glands
    deliver saliva to lubricate food
  34. Teeth chew food into smaller particles that are exposed to salivary what, initiating breakdown of glucose polymers
  35. The tongue shapes food into a what and provides help with swallowing
  36. The region we call our throat is the what?
    • pharynx
    • a junction that opens to both the esophagus and the trachea (windpipe)
  37. Food is pushed along by what, rhythmic contractions of muscles in the wall of the canal
  38. sphincters do what?
    Valves called sphincters regulate the movement of material between compartments
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  40. stomach does what and secretes what?
    stores food and secretes gastric juice, which converts a meal to acid chyme
  41. what is gastric juice made up of?
    Gastric juice is made up of hydrochloric acid and the enzyme
  42. mucus
    • protects the stomach lining from gastric juice
    • Cells in the lining are renewed every 3 days
    • Gastric ulcers, lesions in the lining, are caused mainly by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
  43. parietal cells
    Parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions separately
  44. chief cells
    Chief cells secrete inactive pepsinogen, which is activated to pepsin when mixed with hydrochloric acid in the stomach
  45. pancreas
    The pancreas produces proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, protein-digesting enzymes that are activated after entering the duodenum•Its solution is alkaline and neutralizes the acidic chyme
  46. bile does what and what organ is it in
    • In the small intestine, bile aids in digestion and absorption of fats
    • Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
  47. small intestine 
    • The small intestine is the longest section of the alimentary canal
    • It is the major organ of digestion and absorption
  48. what 3 parts make up the small intestine
    • The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum, and the ilium
    • The small intestine is longer in herbivores than in carnivores–Harder to digest vegetable matter
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    small intestine
  50. the colon is the what intestine?
    what is a cecum?
    • The colon of the large intestine is connected to the small intestine
    • The cecum aids in the fermentation of plant material and connects where the small and large intestines meet
    • The human cecum has an extension called the appendix, which plays a very minor role in immunity
Card Set:
Animal Nutrition
2013-04-15 15:46:20
Life 103

Test 3
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