A&P II - Lab Exam 2

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  1. Define Absorption
    Movement of nutrients, salts and water across the GI epithelium into blood or lymph
  2. Describe the general functions of the digestive system
    To digest food and absorb nutrients, salts and electrolytes essential for health
  3. What is the Alimentary Canal?
    Hollow tube extending from mouth to anus , into which various accessory organs or glands empty their secretions
  4. Define Digestion
    • Process of breaking foods down into smaller diffusible molecules, down Physically & Chemically
    • Physically: chewing or churning
    • Chemically: by ezymes
  5. Major organs of the digestive system
    -Alimentary Canal/ GI Tract (mouth, Pharynx, esophagus  and the small and large intestine.

    -Accessory Digestive Structures (teeth, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver and pancreas)
  6. Role of the tongue
    Manipulates the food during chewing and initiates swallowing, which passes food to the Pharynx
  7. What are the (3) parts of the Pharynx?
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx, leads to the esophagus
  8. Role of the Esphogus
    • A passageway that conducts food to the stomach in a wavelike peristaltic motion 
    • It has no digestive or absorptive function
    • From the esophagus food enters the the cardiac region of the stomach
  9. Function of the Stomach
    • Temporary storage region for food
    • Site of mechanical and chemical breakdown of food; after food is processed in the stomach, becomes chyme, creamy mass
    • From the stomach food enters the small intestine via the Pyloric Sphincter
  10. Where is the Enzyme PEPSIN located?
    In the Stomach, where the breakdown of Protein begins
  11. Carbohydrate Digestion, begins where?  Enzyme responsible?
    • Enzyme is Amylase
    • Begins in the mouth (salivary Amylase) then to the small intestine (Pancreatic Amylase)
  12. Protein Digestion, begins where?  Enzyme responsible?
    • Enzyme is Pepsin
    • Begins in the Stomach and onto the small intestine
  13. Fat/ Lipids Digestion, begins where?  Enzyme responsible?
    • Enzyme is Lipase and Bile from the Liver
    • Digested in the small intestine (Bile from the Liver and Lipase from the Pancreas)
  14. Function of the oral cavity?
    Mechanical processing, moistening and mixing with salivary glands.(ie, Amylase, beginning breakdown of Carbs/ Starches)
  15. Function of the liver?
    Secretion of Bile (important for lipid digestion)
  16. Function of Gall bladder?
    Storage of excess Bile
  17. Function of Pancreas?
    Secretes buffers and digestive enzymes
  18. Function of Large Intestine?
    Dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials, preparation for elimination
  19. Function of the Esphagus?
    • Muscular tube that transports solids and liquids from the pharynx to the Stomach
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
  20. Function of Small Intestine?
    • Enzyme Pepsin, continuation of breaking down proteins
    • Absorption of water, vitamins, ions and organic substrates
  21. Function of Small Intestine?
    • Duodenum: receives chyme from the stomach & secretions from the pancreas and liver 
    • Jejunum: the bulk of chemical digestion & absorption occurs here
    • Ilemun: final segment of small intestine
  22. Function of Pharynx?
    • Pushes food to the Esophagus (food goes from mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach)
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
  23. Function of Stomach?
    • 1. Storage of ingested food
    • 2. Mechanical breakdown of ingested food (Chemical breakdown of materials via acids and enzymes,  
    • Also mechanical processing through muscular contractions (turns food to chyme)
    • ** Simple Columnar Epithelium
  24. What are the major layers (4) layers of the digestive tract
    • Mucosa: inner most layer 
    • SubMucosa:
    • Muscularis Externa:
    • Serosa:
  25. What is Peristalsis?
    contractions of the smooth muscle cells that proper food/ materials/ bolus along the length of the digestive track
  26. Define Mastication?
    Chewing - breakdown of food, helps saturate the food with salivary secretions & enzymes
  27. Anatomy of the stomach
    • J Shaped, has Four regions:
    • The Cardia: smalles part, the esphogus feeds into this section
    • The Fundus
    • The Body: largest region, serves as the mixing tank for gastric digestion 
    • The Pyloris: section that feeds into the small intestine (via the duodenum)
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A&P II - Lab Exam 2

Digestion and Respiratory
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