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What is a circular argument?
argument seems valid at first then reasoning brings it back to the beggining
What is conflation?
Treating two different concepts as if they were the same
What is confusion concerning cause and effect?
assumptions based on if two events happen at the same time or increase at the same rate then one caused the other
What is Post Hoc?
means after this, e.g what happened after this must of been caused because of this
What is confusion of neccesary and sufficient conditions?
Neccessary= soemthing that it is essential in order for something to happen
Sufficient= Gurantees that the next step must follow (all that is neccesary to do something)
What is predictions about future without sufficient evidence?
use of moral panic
What is restricting the options?
only offering a reader a number of limited options to choose from
What is a sweeping generalisation?
A universalized statement or assumption that is not true in all circumstances
What is a unrelated conclusion?
arguing from one perspective then totally changing view without sufficient evidence to back it up
Critical thinnking as level