A&P Exam 7

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A&P Exam 7
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A&P Exam 7
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  1. What are the functions of fascia of the lower limb? (Z066)
    • Connects "skin" to bone
    • Forms compartments
    • Provides tight fitting sleeve of support for upright posture
  2. What is the superior attachment of the fascia lata? (Z068)
    Inguinal ligament
  3. Where is the crural fascia continuous with the periosteum of the leg? (Z069)
    Anterior and medial borders of the tibia.
  4. Name the general portion of the body supplied by each of the following plexuses: coccygeal plexus, lumbar plexus, sacral plexus. (Z070)
    • Coccygeal: small area of skin in the coccygeal region
    • Lumbar: anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitalia, part of lower limbs
    • Sacral: buttocks, perineum, lower limbs
  5. Sequence the following arteries and branches in correct order (note that not all form a single continuous sequence): abdominal aorta, anterior tibial, digital, dorsalis pedis, external iliac, femoral, internal iliac, lateral plantar, medial plantar, obturator artery, popliteal, posterior tibial.
    • Abdominal aorta
    • Internal iliac
    • External iliac
    • Obturator
    • Femoral
    • Popliteal
    • Anterior tibial
    • Posterior tibial
    • Dorsal pedis
    • Lateral plantar
    • Medial plantar
    • Digital
  6. Sequence the following veins and branches in correct order (note that not all form a single continuous sequence): dorsal venous arch, external iliac, femoral, great saphenous, internal iliac, popliteal, small saphenous. (Z087)
    • Internal iliac
    • External iliac
    • Femoral
    • Great saphenous
    • Popliteal
    • Small saphenous
    • Dorsal venous arch
  7. Pair the following blood vessels with the nerves that accompany them: anterior tibial artery, deep fibular nerve, femoral artery, femoral vein, saphenous nerve, small saphenous vein, sural nerve.
    • Anterior tibial artery-->Deep fibular nerve
    • Small saphenous vein-->Sural nerve
    • Femoral artery-->Femoral vein
    • Great saphenous vein-->Saphenous nerve
  8. Name the nerve that may be damaged with injury to each of the following: anterior superior iliac spine, head of the fibula. (Z296, Z422)
    • Anterior superior iliac spine: Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh)
    • Head of the fibula: Common fibular nerve
  9. Compare the density (or number) of valves in deep veins of the lower limb with that of superficial veins. (Z086)
    • Superficial veins: valves less dense than deep veins
    • Deep veins: valves more dense than superficial veins
  10. Why are superficial veins of the lower limb more prone to varices than are deep veins? (Z097)
    Because they have less surrounding skeletal muscles.
  11. What is the effect on the diameter of superficial veins of the lower limb due to the shunting action of blood from superficial veins to deep veins? (Z091)
    Normally veins become larger closer to the heart since they receive more blood on their way to the heart.
  12. What are the bones that comprise the os coxae? (Z015)
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  13. Name the muscle(s) associated with each of the following features of the os coxae: anterior gluteal line, anterior inferior iliac spine, anterior superior iliac spine, iliac fossa, inferior gluteal line, ischial spine, ischial tuberosity, obturator foramen, posterior gluteal line. (Z016-Z018)
    • Anterior gluteal line: Gluteus medius
    • Anterior inferior iliac spine: Rectus femoris
    • Anterior superior iliac spine: Tensor fascia latae, Sartorius
    • Iliac fossa: Iliacus
    • Inferior gluteal line: Gluteus minimus
    • Ischial spine: Superior gemellus
    • Ischial tuberosity: Inferior gemellus, Quadratus femoris, Hamstrings group (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris-long head)
    • Obturator foramen: Obturator externus & internus
    • Posterior gluteal line: Gluteus maximus
  14. What feature of the coxal bone do skin dimples mark the position of? (Z020)
    Posterior superior iliac spines
  15. Compare the pelvis of males and females regarding: angle of the pubic arch (pubic angle), depth of the false pelvis, shape and size of the pelvic brim, orientation of the acetabulum, size of the acetabulum, width of the greater sciatic notch, width of the pelvic outlet. (Z027-Z030)
    • Angle: >90˚(female), <90˚ (male)
    • False pelvis: shallow (female), deep (male)
    • Pelvic brim: larger & more oval in female
    • Acetabulum: smaller, faces anteriorly (female), faces laterally (male)
    • Sciatic notch: wider in females
    • Pelvic outlet: wider in females
  16. Name the muscle(s) attaching to each of the following features of the femur: greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, quadrate tubercle. (Z034)
    • Greater trochanter: Gluteus medius, Gluteus minimus, Piriformis, Obturator internus
    • Lesser trochanter: Common tendon of Psoas major and Iliacus
    • Quadrate tubercle: Quadratus femoris
  17. Name the muscle(s) attaching to the following feature(s) of the tibia: tibial tuberosity. (Z043)
    Patellar ligament (attachment for quadraceps muscles of anterior thigh).
  18. Name the arches of the foot. (Z054)
    • Longitudinal arch (2 parts)
    • Transverse arch
  19. What are the functions of the arches of the foot? (Z055)
    • Distribute body weight over soft & hard tissues of foot.
    • Provide leverage while walking.
    • Yield w/ applied weight (not rigid), spring back (weight lifted).
    • Stores energy for next step.
    • Helps absorb shock.
  20. Describe the course of each of the arches of the foot, to include the bones that comprise each of the arches. (Z056-Z058)
    • Medial part of longitudinal: originates at calcaneus, rises to talus, descends through navicular, 3 cuneiforms, and heads of 3 medial metatarsals
    • Lateral part of longitudinal: originates at calcaneus, rises at cuboid, descends to heads of the two lateral metatarsals
    • Transverse arch: formed by navicular, 3 cuneiforms, and bases of the 5 metatarsals
  21. What is the true articular surface of the hip? What type of cartilage lines the articular surface? (Z115)
    • Lunate surface
    • Hyaline cartilage
  22. Describe the acetabular labrum with regard to its location, composition and function. (Z115)
    • Location: Acetabulum
    • Composition: fibrocartilage lip
    • Function: increases depth of acetabulum, grasps femoral head beyond its equator
  23. What is the function of the transverse acetabular ligament? (Z115)
    Bridges the Acetabular notch.
  24. Under what conditions is the hip joint most stable (have its greatest strength)? (Z129)
    When fully extended and/or bearing weight.
  25. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the gluteus maximus.
    • Origin: iliac crest and sacrum
    • Insertion: gluteal tuberosity (lateral part of linea aspera), and iliotibial band
    • Action: extends thigh at hip joint, laterally rotates thigh
    • Innervation: inferior gluteal nerve
    • Arterial supply: inferior gluteal artery
  26. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the gluteus medius.
    • Origin: ilium
    • Insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: entire muscle abducts thigh at hip, anterior fibers flex & medially rotate thigh, posterior fibers extend and laterally rotate thigh
    • Innervation: superior gluteal nerve
    • Arterial supply: superior gluteal artery
  27. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the gluteus minimus.
    • Origin: ilium
    • Insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: entire muscle abducts thigh at hip, anterior fibers flex and medially rotate thigh, posterior fibers extend and laterally rotate thigh
    • Innervation: superior gluteal nerve
    • Arterial supply: superior gluteal artery
  28. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the iliopsoas.
    • Origin: psoas major- transverse processes & bodies of lumbar vertebrae, iliacus- iliac fossa (of ilium)
    • Insertion: lesser trochanter of femur
    • Action: flex torso and thigh with respect to each other, rotate thigh laterally
    • Innervation: psoas- lumbar spinal nerves, iliacus- femoral nerve
    • Arterial supply: internal iliac artery
  29. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the inferior gemellus.
    • Origin: ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: rotates thigh laterally; also helps abduct thigh
    • Innervation: nerve to the quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus
    • Arterial supply: inferior gluteal artery
  30. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the piriformis.
    • Origin: sacrum
    • Insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: laterally rotates and abducts thigh at hip joint
    • Innervation: piriformis nerve (nerve to piriformis)
    • Arterial supply: superior & inferior gluteal arteries
  31. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the obturator externus.
    • Origin: outer (anterior) surface of membrane covering obturator foramen
    • Insertion: trochanteric fossa of femur
    • Action: rotates thigh laterally; also helps abduct thigh
    • Innervation: obturator nerve
    • Arterial supply: obturator artery
  32. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the obturator internus.
    • Origin: inner (posterior) surface of membrane covering obturator foramen
    • Insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: rotates thigh laterally; also helps abduct thigh
    • Innervation: nerve to obturator internus and superior gemellus
    • Arterial supply: superior and inferior gluteal arteries
  33. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the quadratus femoris.
    • Origin: ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: intertrochanteric crest of femur
    • Action: rotates the hip laterally (stabilizes hip joint)
    • Innervation: nerve to the quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus
    • Arterial supply: inferior gluteal artery
  34. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the superior gemellus.
    • Origin: ischial spine
    • Insertion: greater trochanter or the femur
    • Action: rotates thigh laterally; also helps abduct thigh
    • Innervation: nerve to obturator internus and superior gemellus
    • Arterial supply: inferior gluteal artery
  35. List the muscles that are “short lateral rotators” of the gluteal region. Given a list of putative muscles of the gluteal region, identify those that are lateral rotators of the femur. (Z149)
    • Piriformis
    • Obturator internus
    • Obturator externus
    • Superior gemellus
    • Inferior gemellus
    • Quadratus femoris
  36. What is the normal relationship between the piriformis muscle and the sciatic nerve? (Z150)
    The sciatic nerve runs deep to the piriformis.
  37. Equate the inner and outer surfaces of the obturator membrane regarding which is anterior and which is posterior. (Z144-Z145)
    • Inner (posterior)
    • Outer (anterior)
  38. Where should intragluteal injections be given? What danger exists when injections are given in the “cheek” of the buttock? What landmark(s) indicating the location of the posterior superior iliac spine may be visible in some patients? (Z219)
    • Superior to a line extending from posterior superior iliac spine to the superior border of the greater trochanter.
    • May cause damage to sciatic nerve.
    • Skin dimples.
  39. Given a list, identify nerves of the lumbar plexus that are derived from the: anterior division, posterior division. (Z167-Z178)
    • Anterior: iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, obturator, lumbosacral trunk
    • Posterior: lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh (femoral), femoral
  40. State the muscle group innervated by the motor and sensory components of the femoral nerve.
    • Motor: flexor muscles of thigh, extensor muscles of leg
    • Sensory: skin over anterior and medial aspect of thigh, and medial side of leg and foot
  41. State the muscle group innervated by the motor and sensory components of the genitofemoral nerve.
    • Motor: cremaster muscle
    • Sensory: skin over middle anterior surface of thigh, scrotum (male), labia majora (female)
  42. State the muscle group innervated by the motor and sensory components of the iliohypogastric nerve.
    • Motor: muscles of anterolateral abdominal wall
    • Sensory: skin of inferior abdomen and buttock
  43. State the muscle group innervated by the motor and sensory components of the ilioinguinal nerve.
    • Motor: muscles of anterolateral abdominal wall
    • Sensory: skin of superior medial aspect of thigh
  44. State the muscle group innervated by the motor and sensory components of the obturator nerve.
    • Motor: adductor muscles of leg
    • Sensory: skin over medial aspect of thigh
  45. Which nerve of the lumbar plexus is exclusively sensory?
    Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh (femoral)
  46. Given a list, identify nerves of the sacral plexus that are derived from the: anterior division, posterior division. (Z184, Z195, Z196, Z197, Z211, Z213, Z215)
    • Anterior: nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus, nerve to obturator internus and superior gemellus, tibial
    • Poster: superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, nerve to piriformis, common fibular, posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
  47. State the muscle group innervated by the motor and sensory components of the common fibular component of sciatic.
    • Superficial motor: muscles of lateral compartment of leg (fibularis longus & brevis)
    • Superficial sensory: skin over distal third of anterior aspect of leg and dorsum of foot
    • Deep motor: muscles of anterior compartment of leg (tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, fibularis tertius, extensor digitorum longus & brevis)
    • Deep sensory: skin on adjacent sides of great and second toes
  48. What are the two components of the sciatic nerve? (Z197)
    • Tibial
    • Common fibular
  49. Describe the region innervated by the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh. Be able to recognize this region on an illustration or diagram. (Z216)
    • Skin over anal region
    • Superior posterior aspect of thigh
    • Superior part of calf
    • Scrotum in male
    • Labia majora in female
  50. Name the nerves of the sacral plexus that are exclusively motor, exclusively sensory, and a combination of both.
    • Motor: superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, nerve to piriformis, nerve to quadratus femorus & inferior gemellus, nerve to obturator internus & superior gemellus
    • Sensory: posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
    • Combined: sciatic (tibial, common fibular)
  51. What is the most lateral structure of the thigh? What muscle is the most medial muscle of the thigh? (Z226, Z228)
    • Iliotibial tract
    • Gracilis
  52. What compartments/muscles are part of the free appendage of the thigh (Z229)?
    • Anterior compartment: sartorius, quadriceps femoris
    • Posterior compartment: semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris ("Hamstrings")
    • Medial compartment: adductor longus & brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis ("Adductor group")
  53. What compartments/muscles are extrinsic to the free appendage of the thigh (Z229)?
    • Anterior compartment: iliopsoas, pectineus (transitional muscle between anterior and medial compartments)
    • Medial compartment: pectineus, obturator externus (adductor group)
  54. Describe each of the three compartments of the thigh with regard to: overall action of muscles of the compartment, name of nerve innervating muscles in the compartment (in general). (Z227)
    • Anterior: extensors at knee, flexors at hip (innervated by femoral nerve)
    • Posterior (hamstrings): flexors at knee, extensors at hip (innervated by tibial division of sciatic)
    • Medial (adductor group): adductors of the hip (innervated by obturator)
  55. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the adductor brevis and adductor longus.
    • Origin: pubis
    • Insertion: linea aspera of femur
    • Action: adducts and flexes the thigh
    • Innervation: obturator nerve
    • Arterial supply: obturator artery
  56. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the adductor magnus.
    • Origin: anterior (adductor) head- pubis & ischium, posterior (hamstrings) head- ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: anterior (adductor) part- linea aspera of femur, posterior (hamstrings) part- adductor tubercle of femur
    • Action: anterior (adductor) part- adducts and flexes thigh, posterior (hamstrings) part- adducts and extends thigh
    • Innervation: anterior (adductor) part- obturator nerve, posterior (vertical/hamstring) portion- tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: deep femoral artery
  57. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the biceps femoris.
    • Origin: long head- ischial tuberosity, short head- linea aspera of femur
    • Insertion: fibular head and lateral tibial condyle
    • Action: entire muscle flexes the leg at the knee, and long head extends thigh at the hip joint
    • Innervation: long head- tibial nerve (sciatic), short head- common fibular (sciatic)
    • Arterial supply: deep femoral artery
  58. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the gracilis.
    • Origin: pubis
    • Insertion: pes anserine tendon at upper tibia
    • Action: adducts and flexes the thigh at the hip, and flexes the leg at the knee
    • Innervation: obturator nerve
    • Arterial supply: obturator artery
  59. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the pectineus.
    • Origin: pubis
    • Insertion: pectineal line of femur
    • Action: adducts the thigh and flexes the hip joint
    • Innervation: femoral nerve; frequently also obturator nerve
    • Arterial supply: obturator artery
  60. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the rectus femoris.
    • Origin: anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)
    • Insertion: patella via quadriceps tendon, then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
    • Action: extends lg at the knee, flexes thigh at the hip joint
    • Innervation: femoral nerve
    • Arterial supply: lateral circumflex femoral artery
  61. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the sartorius.
    • Origin: anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
    • Insertion: pes anserine tendon at upper tibia
    • Action: flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates femur at the hip joint, and flexes leg at the knee
    • Innervation: femoral nerve
    • Arterial supply: deep femoral artery
    • **longest muscle in the body AKA the tailor's muscle)**
  62. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the semimembranosus.
    • Origin: ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: medial condyle of tibia
    • Action: flexes leg at the knee, and extends thigh at the hip
    • Innervation: tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: deep femoral artery (profunda femoris artery)
  63. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the semitendinosus.
    • Origin: ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion: pes anserine tendon at upper tibia
    • Action: flexes leg at the knee, and extends the thigh at the hip
    • Innervation: tibial nerve (sciatic)
    • Arterial supply: deep femoral artery (profunda femoris artery)
  64. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the tensor fascia latae.
    • Origin: anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and iliac crest
    • Insertion: tibia by way of iliotibial tract (ITB)
    • Action: flexes, abducts, medially rotates thigh at hip joint; helps stabilize and steady the hip and knee joints by putting tension of the ITB of fascia
    • Innervation: superior gluteal nerve
    • Arterial supply: superior gluteal artery
  65. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the vastus intermedius.
    • Origin: superior anterior and lateral surfaces of femur
    • Insertion: patella via quadriceps tendon, then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
    • Action: extends the leg at the knee
    • Innervation: femoral nerve
    • Arterial supply: lateral circumflex femoral artery
  66. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the vastus lateralis.
    • Origin: greater trochanter and linea aspera of femur
    • Insertion: patella via quadriceps tendon, then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
    • Action: extends the leg at the knee
    • Innervation: femoral nerve
    • Arterial supply: lateral circumflex femoral artery
  67. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the vastus medialis.
    • Origin: linea aspera of femur
    • Insertion: patella via quadriceps tendon, the tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
    • Action: extends the leg at the knee
    • Innervation: femoral nerve
    • Arterial supply: deep femoral artery
  68. Name the muscle(s) having an insertion on the ITB. (Z137, Z239)
    • Gluteus maximus
    • Tensor fascia latae
  69. What muscles/structures form the boundaries of the femoral triangle? (Z250)
    • Base: inguinal ligament (external oblique)
    • Lateral: sartorius
    • Medial: adductor longus
    • Floor: iliopsoas & pectineus
  70. What are the contents of the femoral triangle from lateral to medial? (Z252)
    • Nerve
    • Artery
    • Vein
    • Lymphatics
    • **NAVL**
  71. How is the great saphenous vein associated with the femoral triangle? (Z253)
    It runs through it superficially to deeper.
  72. What muscles comprise the quadriceps femoris group of muscles? Where do muscles of the quadriceps femoris insert? What quadriceps femoris muscles act at the hip? What quadriceps femoris muscles act at the knee? (Z242-Z246)
    • Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
    • Patella via quadriceps tendon, then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament.
    • Hip: rectus femoris
    • Knee: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis-medialis-intermedius
  73. What are the criteria/features that define hamstring muscles? (Z265)
    • Origin on ischial tuberosity.
    • Insert on a bone of the leg (tibia/fibula).
    • Innervated by tibial nerve (of sciatic).
  74. What muscles comprise the hamstrings group of muscles? (Z265)
    • Semitendinosus
    • Semimembranosus
    • Biceps femoris (long head only)
    • Adductor magnus (hamstring AKA vertical/posterior portion)
  75. Why is the posterior portion of the adductor magnus considered to be a hamstring component?
    It originates on the ischial tuberosity.
  76. What are the contents of the subsartorial canal? (Z287, Z289)
    • Femoral artery & vein
    • Saphenous nerve
  77. Name the muscles that comprise the pes anserine group of muscles. What is the conjoined tendon of pes anserine muscles sometimes called? (Z291)
    • Sartorius, gracilis, semitendinosus muscles.
    • Inside hamstring muscles.
  78. What tendon can be observed and palpated on the lateral boundary of the popliteal fossa? What tendon can be observed and palpated on the medial boundary of the popliteal fossa? (Z308)
    • Lateral: tendon of biceps femoris
    • Medial: tendon of semitendinosus muscle
  79. What are the functions of menisci of the knee? Of what substance are menisci of the knee composed? (Z332)
    • Deepen the articular surface, act as shock absorbers, fill in gaps during joint movement.
    • Made of fibrocartilaginous discs.
  80. What are the alternate terms for the fibular collateral ligament and tibial collateral ligament?
    • Fibular collateral ligament-->lateral collateral ligament
    • Tibial collateral ligament-->medial collateral ligament
  81. Which meniscus is the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament associated with? Which meniscus is the tibial (medial) collateral ligament associated with?
    • LCL: not attached to the lateral meniscus (no association)
    • MCL: is attached to the medial meniscus
    • **both ligaments provide stability to the lateral and medial aspects of the knee**
  82. What are the relative strengths of each of the collateral ligaments?
    Tibial (medial) collateral ligament is weaker than the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament.
  83. What is the referent for assigning the description anterior and posterior to the cruciate ligaments? (Z340)
    In the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
  84. What is the function of the anterior cruciate ligament? What is the function of the posterior cruciate ligament? (Z339, Z341)
    • Anterior: prevents anterior displacement of the tibia.
    • Posterior: prevents posterior displacement of the tibia.
  85. Are the two cruciate ligaments inside the fibrous capsule of the knee? Are the two cruciate ligaments inside the synovial capsule of the knee? (Z338)
    Cruciate ligaments are within the articular (fibrous) capsule, but are outside the synovial joint cavity.
  86. What are the relative strengths of the two cruciate ligaments? (Z338, Z357)
    • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is weaker of the two.
    • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is stronger of the two.
  87. What are the names of the genicular arteries? From what artery do the genicular arteries branch? (Z350)
    • Superior medial genicular artery
    • Inferior medial genicular artery
    • Superior lateral genicular artery
    • Inferior lateral genicular artery
    • Middle genicular artery
    • **These arteries are branches of the popliteal artery.**
  88. What comprises the unhappy triad of injuries? (Z354)
    • Twisting strain of tibial collateral ligament,
    • May tear/detach medial meniscus from fibrous capsule,
    • In turn ruptures the ACL
  89. What does the anterior drawer test evaluate? What does the posterior drawer test evaluate? (Z356, Z358)
    • Integrity of the ACL
    • Integrity of the PCL
  90. How does constantly walking or jogging on the same side of the road contribute to patellofemoral stress syndrome? (Z361)
    Roads are sloped on one side so the knee that is closer to the center of the road endures greater mechanical stress since is doesn't fully extend during a stride.
  91. Name the muscles in the anterior compartment (extensors) of the leg.
    • Tibialis anterior
    • Extensor digitorum longus
    • Extensor hallucis longus
    • Fibularis (peroneus) tertius
  92. Name the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg.
    • Fibularis (peroneus) longus & brevis
    • Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve
  93. Name the muscles in the superficial posterior compartment of the leg.
    • Superficial flexors:
    • Soleus
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Plantaris (tendon)
  94. Name the muscles of the Deep posterior compartment of the leg.
    • Deep flexors:
    • Flexor digitorum longus
    • Tibialis posterior
    • Flexor hellucis longus
    • Popliteus
  95. What is the overall action of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg? What is the nerve that innervates them?
    • Dorsiflexion at the ankle
    • Inversion of the foot
    • Extension of toes
    • **innervated by deep fibular nerve**
  96. What is the overall action of the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg? What is the nerve that innervates them?
    • Weak plantarflexion
    • Eversion of foot
    • **innervated by superficial fibular nerve**
  97. What is the overall action of the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg? What is the nerve that innervates them?
    • Plantarflexion of the ankle
    • Flexion of the toes
    • **innervated by tibial nerve**
  98. What action of the foot is a combination of inversion, plantarflexion and adduction?
    Supination (anterior comp. muscles)
  99. What action of the foot is a combination of eversion, dorsiflexion and abduction?
    Pronation (lateral comp. muscles)
  100. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the extensor digitorum longus.
    • Origin: tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: toes 2-5 (dorsal surface of middle & distal phalanges)
    • Action: extend toes 2-5 and dorsiflexes foot at ankle
    • Innervation: deep fibular (peroneal) nerve
    • Arterial supply: anterior tibial artery
  101. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the extensor hallucis longs.
    • Origin: fibula and adjacent interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: distal phalanx of great toe (dorsal surface)
    • Action: extends great toe and dorsiflexes foot at ankle
    • Innervation: deep fibular (peroneal) nerve
    • Arterial supply: anterior tibial artery
  102. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the fibularis brevis.
    • Origin: fibula
    • Insertion: base of fifth metatarsal (lateral, plantar foot)
    • Action: everts foot and plantar flexes foot at ankle
    • Innervation: superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve
    • Arterial supply: fibular (peroneal) artery by way of perforating branches
  103. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the fibularis longus.
    • Origin: fibula
    • Insertion: first metatarsal and first cuneiform (medial, plantar foot)
    • Action: everts foot and plantar flexes foot at ankle (also helps support transverse arch of foot)
    • Innervation: superficial (fibular) peroneal nerve
    • Arterial supply: fibular (peroneal) artery by way of perforating branches
  104. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the fibularis tertius.
    • Origin: fibula and adjacent interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: fifth metatarsal (base)
    • Action: dorsiflexes and everts the foot in conjuction with extensor digitorum longus
    • Innervation: deep fibular (peroneal) nerve
    • Arterial supply: anterior tibial artery
  105. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the flexor digitorum longus.
    • Origin: tibia
    • Insertion: plantar surface of toes 2-5 (distal phalanges of toes 2-5)
    • Action: flexes toes 2-5 and plantar flexes foot
    • Innervation: tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: posterior tibial artery
  106. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the flexor hallucis longus.
    • Origin: fibula
    • Insertion: plantar surface of great toe (distal phalanx)
    • Action: flexes great toe and plantar flexes foot at ankle (weakly)
    • Innervation: tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: posterior tibial artery
  107. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the gastroncnemius.
    • Origin: lateral and medial femoral condyles
    • Insertion: the two heads unite into a broad aponeurosis which eventually unites with the deep tendon of the soleus to form the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon, inserting on the posterior calcaneal surface
    • Action: plantar flexes foot at ankle, and flexes leg at knee
    • Innervation: tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: sural branches of the popliteal artery (one branch each head)
  108. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the plantaris.
    • Origin: femur
    • Insertion: calcaneus
    • Action: plantar flexes foot at ankle, and flexes leg at knee
    • Innervation: tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: sural branches of the popliteal artery
  109. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the popliteus.
    • Origin: femur
    • Insertion: tibia just superior to the popliteal line
    • Action: rotates knee medially and flexes the leg on the thigh
    • Innervation: tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: genicular branch of popliteal artery
  110. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the soleus.
    • Origin: tibia and fibula
    • Insertion: unites with the gastrocnemius aponeurosis to form the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon, inserting on the posterior calcaneal surface
    • Action: plantar flexes foot at the ankle
    • Innervation: tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: sural branches of the popliteal artery
  111. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the tibialis anterior.
    • Origin: tibia and interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: first cuneiform and first metatarsal
    • Action: dorsiflexes and inverts foot
    • Innervation: deep fibular (peroneal) nerve
    • Arterial supply: anterior tibial artery
  112. State the origin, insertion, action, innervation, and arterial supply of the tibialis posterior.
    • Origin: tibia and fibula, and interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: plantar tarsals and metatarsals of foot (proximal plantar bones of foot), 2nd, 3rd, 4th metatarsals; navicular; cuneiforms; cuboid
    • Action: plantar flexes foot at ankle and inverts foot
    • Innervation: tibial nerve
    • Arterial supply: posterior tibial artery
  113. What is the relationship between tibialis anterior and fibularis longus? Where does each insert? What is the action of each? (Z391)
    • They are antagonistic muscles.
    • Tibialis inserts dorsally at the base of the 1st metatarsal and 1st cuneiform bones, and dorsiflexes the foot.
    • Fibularis inserts on plantar aspect of the base of the 1st metatarsal and 1st cuneiform bones, and plantar flexes the foot.
  114. What muscles comprise the triceps surae? What attribute do these muscles not share?
    • Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles.
    • Do not share origin.
  115. Name the muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the leg that (a) have an action at the knee joint, and (b) do not have an action at the knee joint.
    • Action at knee: gastocnemius, plantaris
    • No action at knee: soleus
  116. Relative to the overall size and length of the whole muscle (comprising belly and tendon), which muscle of the leg has an extremely long tendon? (Z403)
    Plantaris
  117. Sequence the following arteries and branches in correct order (note that not all form a single continuous sequence): anterior tibial artery, dorsalis pedis artery, fibular artery, lateral plantar artery, medial plantar artery, popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery.
    • Popliteal
    • Anterior tibial
    • Posterior tibial
    • Fibular
    • Dorsalis pedis
    • Lateral plantar
    • Medial plantar
  118. What muscles are likely to be affected by injury to the common fibular nerve? What area of cutaneous sensation would also be affected? How would common fibular nerve injury affect the way a person walks? (Z424-Z426)
    • Muscles in the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg (dorsiflexors of the ankle and evertors of the foot, causing foot drop).
    • Sensation on anterolateral aspect of the leg and dorsum of the foot will be lost.
    • Patient compensates by adopting a high stepping ("steppage") gait, raising foot as high as necessary to keep toes from hitting ground.
  119. What are the symptoms of deep fibular neuritis? (Z429)
    Pain, 1st/2nd toe numbness and tingling, and weakness of big toe dorsiflexion.
  120. What are the names of the “Tom, Dick, and Harry” muscles? Where are these muscles located? (Z409-Z413)
    • Tibialis posterior
    • Flexor digitorum longus
    • Flexor hallucis longus
    • **located on the tibia down the medial part of the leg to the metatarsals and toes**
  121. Under what conditions is the ankle joint most stable (have its greatest strength)? What causes this particular condition to be that of greatest strength? (Z443)
    • When it is fully dorsiflexed.
    • A mortise of formed by the distal ends of the tibia and fibula into which the trochlea of the talus fits "locking" it into place.
  122. What is the function of the medial ligament of the ankle? (Z444)
    Anchors the medial malleolus to the talus.
  123. What are the relative strengths of the medial and lateral ligaments of the ankle? (Z444)
    Lateral ligament is the weaker of the two collateral ligaments.
  124. What is the most commonly injured ligament in the ankle? (Z449)
    Anterior talofibular ligament
  125. State the three regions of the foot. What comprises each region? (Z453)
    • Forefoot: comprises toes and metatarsals
    • Midfoot: consists of cuneiforms, cuboid, and navicular bones
    • Hindfoot: comprises the calcaneus and talus
  126. Correlate the three regions of the foot with the complaints for the region, and the cause(s) of those complaints. (Z454)
    • Forefoot: most common site of foot complaints; most problems caused by poor shoe selection, foot deformities, degenerative changes; some problems are bunion, stress fractures, 5th metatarsal fractures.
    • Midfoot: complaints relatively uncommon; include midfoot sprain, tarsal fractures, posterior tibialis dysfunction.
    • Hindfoot: most problems caused by overuse or excessive weight; common complaints are plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinosis, and bursitis.
  127. What nerve innervates the extensor digitorum brevis muscle(s)?
    Deep fibular nerve
  128. Given a list of putative muscles in the various plantar layers of the foot, identify muscles that are in each compartment. (Z470-Z479)
    • 1st: abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi
    • 2nd: lumbricals, quadratus plantae
    • 3rd: adductor hallicus (transverse & oblique head), flexor digiti minimi brevis plantae
    • 4th: plantar interosseous
  129. Name the tendon that is superficial to the lateral malleolus, and which is visible and palpable deep to the skin as the tendon courses over the malleolus. (Z461, Z369)
    Fibularis longus tendon
  130. What distinctive feature identifies muscles that are in the first plantar layer of the foot? (Z470)
    Muscles extend from the calcaneus to some component of the phalanges.
  131. What distinctive feature identifies muscles that are in the second plantar layer of the foot? (Z471)
    The lumbricals are similar to those found in the hand.
  132. Differentiate clawfoot from hammertoe regarding the number of toes typically involved. (Z491)
    • Claw foot/toe usually involves the lateral four toes.
    • Hammertoe involves only one toe (2nd, 3rd, or 4th).
  133. From what larger artery is the dorsalis pedis artery derived? (Z508)
    Anterior tibial artery
  134. What are the terminal branches of the posterior tibial artery? (Z509)
    Medial and lateral plantar arteries.

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