Sociology chap. 5 groups & organizations

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Sociology chap. 5 groups & organizations
2013-04-12 15:59:58

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  1. social group
    2 or more people who identify with and interact with one another
  2. primary group
    a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
  3. secondary group
    a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
  4. instrumental leadership
    group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks
  5. expressive leadership
    group leadership that focuses on the group's well-being
  6. groupthink
    the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
  7. reference group
    a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
  8. in-group
    a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
  9. out-group
    a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition
  10. dyad
    a social group with 2 members
  11. triad
    a social group with 3 members
  12. network
    a web of weak social ties
  13. formal organization
    a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently
  14. tradition
    values and beliefs passed from generation to generation
  15. rationality
    a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task
  16. rationalization of society
    Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought
  17. bureaucracy
    organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
  18. organizational environment
    factors outside an organization that affect its operation
  19. bureaucratic ritualism
    focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals
  20. bureaucratic inertia
    the tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves
  21. oligarchy
    the rule of the many by the few
  22. scientific management
    the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization
  23. category
    people with a status in common (ex. women, Asian, etc...)
  24. crowd
    a loosely formed collection of people in one place (ex. people at a concert)
  25. group
    contains people with shared experiences, loyalties, and interests
  26. characteristics of a primary group
    • personal orientation
    • usually long-term
    • broad; usually involving many activities
    • ends in themselves
    • families or circle of friends
  27. characteristics of a secondary group
    • goal orientation
    • often short-term but it depends
    • narrow; usually involving a few activities
    • means to an end
    • co-workers, political organizations
  28. Asch's experiment on group conformity
    • recruited students for "a study of visual perception"
    • placing 6-8 students around a table and his "secret accomplishes" began answering incorrectly to pressure the remaining person to conform to the group
    • found that one-third of all subjects chose to conform by answering incorrectly
  29. Milgram's experiment on group conformity
    • recruits males and told them that they would be taking part in "a study of how punishment affects learning"
    • the electric chair experiment
    • almost two-third went all the way to 450 volts
    • found that people are likely to follow the directions not only of legitimate authority figures but also of groups of ordinary individuals, even if doing so means harming others
  30. 4 principles of McDonaldization
    • efficiency
    • predictability
    • uniformity
    • control
  31. types of formal organization
    • utilitarian organization - one that pays people for their efforts (ex. businesses or gov. agencies)
    • normative organization - have goals people consider worthwhile (ex. PTA)
    • coercive organizations - organizations people are forced to join (ex. prison and mental hospitals)
  32. 2 leadership roles
    • instrumental leadership
    • expressive leadership
  33. 3 leadership styles
    • authoritarian leadership
    • democratic leadership
    • laissez-faire leadership