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What two enzymes do peroxisomes contain, and what is their function?
They contain oxidase and catalase, which degrade poisonous metabolic wastes resulting from some oxygen-dependent reactions within the cell.
What are two notable bacteria that can produce endospores?
- 1) Bacillus
- 2) Clostridium
What are the two alternating sugar molecules that compose the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls?
- 1) N-acetylglucosoamine (NAG)
- 2) N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
What is a major difference between the cell walls of bacteria compared to the cell walls of archaea?
Bacteria cell walls are made of peptidoglycan, archaea's are not.
What are inclusions?
They are reserve deposits of lipids, starch, or compounds containing nitrogen, phosphate, or sulfur. They are taken in and stored when nutrients are in abundance, then utilized when nutrients are scarce. They are found in bacterial cytoplasm.
What do lysosomes do and what do they contain that allows them to do their job?
Lysosomes contain catabolic enzymes that damage the cell when released. Thus, they are used in the self-destruction of old, damaged, and diseased cells. They are also able to digest nutrients that have been phagocytized.
What might techoic and lipotechoic acids on gram-positive cell walls be used for?
These acids hold a negative chagne, so they might be used to transport positive ions through the cell membrane.
(3, 65 & lecture)
What is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
- Phagocytosis is endocytosis where solids are brought into the cell.
- Pinocytosis is endocytosis where liquids are brought into the cell.
List four features of gram-positive bacterial cells.
- 1) Thick peptidoglycan layer.
- 2) Contain teichoic acids.
- 3) Techoic acids give cell walls a negative charge.
- 4) Retain crystal violet dye and thus appear purple during staining.
List five features of gram-negative cells.
- 1) Thin layer of peptidoglycan.
- 2) Asymmetric bilayer membran on each side of peptidoglycan.
- 3) Integral proteins call porins form channels to pass things (monosacchrides) through membranes.
- 4) Outer leaflet is made of lipopolysacchride (LPS), which contains Lipid A.
- 5) When killed/destroyed, they can release Lipid A, which is very harmful to patient.
What is a cytoskeleton?
A cytoskeleton is an internal network of fibers that help form a cell's basic shape.
What are two other terms for cytoplasmic membrane?
- 1) Cell membrane
- 2) Plasma membrane
What are phagocytes?
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytizing) harmful foreign particles.
What is the difference between integral proteins and peripheral proteins?
Integral proteins are inserted amidst the phospholipid bilayers, peripheral proteins are loosely attached to the membrane on one side or the other.
What is the difference between the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)?
The RER is rough because it is studded with ribosomes. These ribosomes are responsible for the assembly of many proteins, which are then transported throughout the cell.
The SER is responsible for lipid synthesis and transport.
What does the Golgi Body do?
The Golgi Body is the "shipping department" of a cell. It receives, processes, and packages large molecules into secretory vesicles, which then leave the cell via exocytosis.
Compare uniports, symports, and antiports in a cell membrane.
Uniports transport one chemical at a time, whereas antiports transport two chemicals at the same time (one chemical comes in, one goes out). Symports also transport two chemicals simultaneously, but in the same direction (either in to or out of the cell).
What is coupled transport?
Coupled transport is when one chemical's electrochemical gradient provides the energy needed to transport the second chemical at a symport or antiport.
What is group translocation?
- Group translocation is when the substance being actively transported across a membrane is chemically changed during transport, thus keeping it inside of the cell because the membrane is impermeable to the altered substance.
- *This occurs only in some bacteria.
What are nucleoli (nucleolus for singular)?
They are specialized regions in the nucleoplasm where RNA is synthesized.
Define and describe the makeup of cytosol.
- Cytosol is the liquid portion of the cytoplasm. It is composed mostly of water but also contains dissolved and suspended particles including ions, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and wastes.
- *In prokaryotes, it also contains the DNA region called the nucleoid.
What do ribosomes do?
They are the sites of protein synthesis in cells.
What is active transport?
Active transport is the movement of a substance against its electrochemical gradient via carrier proteins and requires cell energy from ATP.
What four characteristics are common to all living things?
- 1) Reproduction
- 2) Responsiveness
- 3) Growth
- 4) Metabolism
What are fimbriae?
Fimbriae are sticky, bristle-like projections bacteria cells use to adhere to one another and substances in the environment.
What is glycocalyx?
Glycocalyx is the gelatinous, sticky substance that surrounds the outside of some cells. It can often aid in the a bacteria/pathogen's success in a number of ways.
What are two functions of cilia, structures that are only found on eukaryotic cells?
They beat rhythmically to propel single-celled eukaryotes through their environments.
They move substances in the local environment past the cell in multicellular eukaryotes (human respiratory tract).
What is one specific feature of archaea membranes that allows them to survive such harsh environments?
They have ether linkages rather that ester linkages (which bacterial membranes have) in their cytoplasmic membranes. Ether linkages are much stronger than ester linkages.
What are the three passive processes in cell walls?
- 1) Diffusion
- 2) Facilitated Diffusion
- 3) Osmosis
Compare hypertonic and hypotonic.
In a solution, the side with higher concentration of solutes is hypertonic, and the side with a lower concentration of solutes is hypotonic.
What three substances compose bacterial cytoplasms?
What is a fourth substance found in some cells?
- 1) Cytosol
- 2) Ribosomes
- 3) Inclusions
- *4) Cytoskeleton
Describe the two major differences between flagella in eukaryotic cells compared to prokaryotic cells?
- 1) Eukaryotic flagella are internal structures located within the cytoplasmic membrane.
- 2) Eukaryotic flagella undulate rhythmically rather than rotate like prokaryotic flagella.
What are hami?
They exist only on certain types of what domain of microorganisms?
Hami are grappling hook-like projection that radiate from certain types of archaea. They help them attach to surfaces (like fimbraea in bacteria).
Do all bacteria have cell walls?
No. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an example.