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what does LCES stand for?
- escape routes
- safe zone
what does laminar flow mean?
fast water on top, center of river
what is helical flow?
slow water on sides of river circulates in spiral motion with other water
calm areas of water separated from the main current
the line where the recycling water is separated from the main donstream current-recognized by whire turbulent water
what are low head dams?
man-made vertical drops that stretch from shore to shore with no downstream eddies, Vs, or other river features normally used for Rx
the white turbulent water in a hydraulic is how much % of air?
what type of PFD is used for swift water?
what should you attach?
- type 3 USCG approved
- knife, whistle
what is the single most versatile tool for water Rx?
what is the exclusion, operational, and support zones for a mud slide?
how can you remove a victim from mud?
harness them and spray water and air into mud to break suction
Collapse stage 1
- respond, 8-sided size up
- (top,bottom, 4 sides, airspace, exterior)
Collapse zone Stage 2
what goes on top of X marking?
- date, time team left structure
- victim info
what goes on left side of / or X?
what mark is made for minor damage, little danger of collapse?
2x2' orange box
structure is significantly damaged marking
not safe for search operations marking
V with a line across the top signifies what?
V with an X and circle around it?
- victim is deceased
- victim removed
Collapse stage 3
- void space search
- generally exceeds FF 1and 2 skill level
on a collapse is it safer to breach a wall or cut through floors
collapse stage 4
- selected debris removal
- delayer the collapse zone from top to bottom
collapse stage 5
- general debris removal
- transition to recovery phase
5 phases of collapse zone SAR
- 1. size up
- 2. surface SAR
- 3. void space search (no heavy equip. yet)
- 4. selected debris removal
- 5. general debris removal
how far away should you park at trench collapse?
rescuers should not enter trench > how many feet?
chances of secondary trench collapse
where should ladders be placed on trench operation?
nonpermit confined space is what?
- large enough for employee
- limited means of entry/egress
- not designed for continuous occupancy
permit confined space is what?
- known potential for haz. atmosphere
- pot. to entrap or asphyxiate
- other hazards
combustible are considered hazardous at what LEL?
raw sewage contains high amounts of what gas?
zone where no one should enter without suitable safety equip
exclusion (generally 50' on confined Rx)
zone for equipment and operations
operational zone (100' around exclusionary on confined Rx)
what is a traction elevator?
where is the control room located?
- electric motor with cable or rope to raise and lower car
what is a hydraulic elevator?
where is power unit located?
- uses piston under hydraulic pressure to raise an lower.
what is the safety perimeter of downed wires?
what is the first task on an elevator emergency?