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what are some examples of physiologic murmurs, those that are innocent functional murmurs?
PDA is rare in horses but produces what type of murmur?
- continuous machinery murmur
- heart base
- Bounding pulses
what is the most common congenital heart disease in horses?
ventricular septal defect
where is point of maximum intensity with L to R shunt with VSD?
tricuspid valve (right)
why is there a soft murmur also heard on left side with VSD?
If horse is symptomatic and VSD Dx'd W/ doppler, what is recommended Tx?
describe the murmur associated with tetrology of fallot.
- loud systolic murmur
- loudest at pulmonic valve (stenosis)
which congenital defect is associated with cyanosis and polycytemia?
tetrology of fallot
what are 4 common causes of acquired murmurs?
- ruptured cordae tendinae
what is the most common murmur detected in horses?
How does it sound?
- mitral regurgitation
- Holosystolic murmur
Incidental finding in older horses due to degeneration of this valve?
Is prognosis worse in young or older horses?
worse in younger bc faster progression
describe the murmur associated with aortic regurgitation?
Holodiastolic - harsh decrescendo
Loudest at aortic valve
does intensity of tricuspid regurgitation correlate with severity?
yes, intensity correlates with size of defect
which valve is most commonly associated with bacterial endocarditis?
What age is horse?
- Left side (MV or AV)
- Average 5 yr
- Poor prognosis even w/ Tx
C/S with endocarditis? 5
- Mitral murmurs
Isolates associated with endocarditis?
Expected Clin Path?
what is prognosis for pericarditis?
- Idiopathic = Good
- Bacterial = Guarded
which side is more commonly associated with heart failure?
L side insufficiencies
- Volume overload & Pulmonary hypertension
- C/S when R sided failure