MIC 541-Exam 4 -Antimicrobials I- 4

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MIC 541-Exam 4 -Antimicrobials I- 4
2013-04-13 10:14:42
MIC 541 Exam Antimicrobials

MIC 541-Exam 4 -Antimicrobials I- 4
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  1. Define Cidal Activity:
    Irreversible loss of ability to reproduce
  2. What is the term for irreversible loss of ability to reproduce?
  3. Activity is described as quantitively or qualitatively?
  4. What three names are assigned to each antimicrobial?
    • Chemical
    • Generic
    • Trade
  5. Ampicillin is a Chemical, trade or generic name?
  6. Ominipen, Principen and Amcillin are trade, generic or chemical names?
  7. What is the generic name for Ominipen, Principen and Amcillin?
  8. What are the two general modes of application for Antimicrobial agents?
    • Topical
    • Systemic
  9. Topic and Systemic are two divisions of what antimicrobial characteristic?
    Mode of Application
  10. What types of Systemic modes of application were discussed in class?
    • Oral
    • Parenteral
    • Rectal
  11. Oral, Parenteral and Rectal are what general type of application mode?
  12. What seven general areas of action in the cell are common in antimicrobials?
    • Ribosome
    • 50s subunit
    • 30s subunit
    • Cell membrane
    • Cell wall
    • DNA
    • Cytoplasm
    • What action of microbial drugs is commonly taken against the Ribosome?
    • Inhibition of protein synthesis
  13. An antimicrobial drug that inhibits protein synthesis has effects in what area of the cell?
    The Ribosome
  14. What common drugs are active against the ribosomal 50s subunit?
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Erythromycin
    • Clindamycin
  15. Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin and Clindamycin all have antimicrobial activity against what cellular component?
    50s ribosomal subunit
  16. What common antimicrobial drugs are active against the 30s ribosomal subunit?
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Tetracyclines
    • Strptomycin
    • Amikacin
  17. Aminoglycosides, Tetracycline, Streptomycin and Amikacin all have activity antimicrobial against what cellular component?
    The 30s ribosomal subunit
  18. What antimicrobial is active against the cell membrane?
  19. Polymixins haveantimicrobial activity against what cellular component?
    The Cell Membrane
  20. What type of activity do antimicrobials that are active against the cell wall have?
    Block Cell wall synthesis and repair
  21. Antimicrobials that block synthesis and repair of the cell wall are:
    • Penicillins
    • Cephalosporins
    • Vancomycin
    • Bacitracin
    • Monobactams
  22. Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Vancomycin, Bactitracin and Monobactones have what antimicrobial activity?
    Block synthesis and repair of the Cell Wall
  23. What actions do Antimicrobials that are active against DNA have?
    • Inhibit gyrase
    • Inhibit RNA polymerase
  24. Antimicrobials that inhibit gyrase and RNA polymerase have activity against what cellular component?
  25. What antimicrobial inhibits gyrase, and thus the unwinding of DNA?
    • Quinolones
    • Ciprofloxacin
  26. What antimicrobials inhibit RNA polymerase?
  27. Quionolones, Ciprofloxacin and Rifampin all have activity against what cellular component?
  28. Quinolones and Ciprofloxacin have what specific antimicrobial activity?
    Inhibit gyrase
  29. Rifampin has what specific antimicrobial activity?
    Inhibits RNA polymerase
  30. What action do antimicrobials have against the cytoplasm?
    Inhibit folic acid metabolism
  31. Antimicrobials that act against the cytoplasm have what specific action?
    Inhibit folic acid metabolism
  32. What drugs inhibit folic acid metabolism
    • Sulfonamides (Sulfa drugs)
    • Trimethoprim
  33. Trimethoprim and Sulfonamides have activity against what cellular component?
    The Cytoplasm
  34. Trimethoprim and Sulfonamides have what specific antimicrobial action?
    Inhibit folic acid metabolism
  35. What are the five characteristics of an ideal antibiotic?
    • Selective
    • Cidal
    • Narrow-Spectrum
    • High therapeutic Index
    • Few Adverse Reactions
    • Variety of administration routes
    • Good absorption and Distribution
    • Resistance develops infrequently
  36. Selective, Cidal, Narrow-Spectrum, high Therapeutic Index, Few adverse Reactions, Variety of administration routes, Good absorption and Distribution, Resistance develops infrequently are characteristics that describe what?
    The Ideal Antimicrobial
  37. Describe the characteristics that describe an antimicrobial with “Few Adverse Reactions”?
    • Toxicity-dose related (predictable)
    • Allergy (non-allergenic)
    • Idiosyncratic reactions –not dose related
  38. What characteristic of toxicity would be ideal?
    Dose related toxicity –i.e. predictable
  39. What characteristic of idiosyncratic reactions is most ideal?
    Not dose related
  40. What type of administration route is characteristic of an ideal antimicrobial?
    A variety of routes available
  41. What characteristic of absorption and distribution would an ideal antimicrobial exhibit?
    • High level
    • Distributing to difficult to reach areas like:
    • CNS, prostate and aqueous humor of the eye
  42. What are the three mechanisms of resistance used my microbes?
    • Antibiotic inactivating enzymes
    • Altered target
    • Reduced accumulation (reduced permeability and active efflux)
  43. Antibiotic inactivating enzymes, altered targets and Reduced accumulation (via reduced permeability and active efflux) are mechanisms for what?
    Antibiotic Resistance
  44. What five questions should be considered before selecting an antibiotic?
    • Will the antibiotic be absorbed
    • Where will it be absorbed?
    • Will it penetrate the CNS or Prostate?
    • Will is transfer to breast milk?
    • How will it be excreted?
  45. What is the easiest direct route of absorption?
  46. In what ways may rapid absorption of intravenous infusions be offset?
    • By rapid excretion
    • By slow infusion
  47. Slow infusion or rapid excretion can offset what characteristic of Intravenous absorption?
    Rapid and direct infiltration of the blood
  48. What variable exists for intramuscular routes?
    Rate of fluid exchange
  49. What groups of patients should receive special consideration prior to receiving IM administration?
    • Diabetics –due to poor circulation
    • Hypotensive patients –due to low blood pressure
  50. Why should Hypotensive patients receive special consideration prior to intramuscular administration?
    • IM admin. is dependent on fluid exchange rates
    • Hypotensive patients have low blood pressure that affects this rate
  51. Why should Diabetics receive special consideration prior to receiving Intramuscular administration?
    • Intramuscular admin. Absorption is dependent on the rate of fluid exchange
    • Diabetics have poor circulation that affects this rate
  52. What is the explanation for a massive delayed rapid drug release in a patient who received an IM injection?
    • Previous Hypotension that caused accumulation of the drug at the IM site
    • Current increase in BP caused a rapid release of the drug
  53. What is a potential absorption advantage of IM injections?
    Extends the duration of therapeutics levels by delaying drug entry into the blood stream
  54. What route of administration can delay drug entry into the blood stream and extend the duration of therapeutic levels?
  55. What is an example of an IM injection that is designed to release into the blood stream slowly and maintain therapeutic levels?
    Penicillin and Procaine
  56. Procaine Penicillin or a Penicillin salt is more soluble?
    Penicillin salt
  57. What is the advantage of Procaine Penicillin IM injection?
    • It is less soluble than salt forms of penicillin
    • Thus, it releases into the blood stream at a slower rate
  58. Procaine Penicillin or Procaine salts allow for a loner interval between doses?
    Procaine Penicillin
  59. What should be injected intramuscularly with penicillin to slow the release prolong the interval between doses?
  60. What factor plays the most significant role in determining the absorption of oral doses?
  61. What state are oral doses most likely to be absorbed?
    Lest polar state
  62. The least polar state is important for what type of dosage?
  63. The stomach is acidic or alkaline?
  64. The small intestine if acidic or alkaline?
  65. What two factors discussed in class influence the absorption rates for oral doses?
    • Chemistry
    • Intestinal transit time
  66. Intestinal transit time and chemistry are important influencing factors for what route of administration?
  67. Antacids decrease uptake of what oral drugs?
    Acidic drugs and flouroquinolones
  68. What reduces uptake of Acidic drugs and flouroquinolones?
  69. Gastric Acid production varies with age (T/F)?
  70. Kids and geriatric patients have what characteristic that alters their absorption of oral drugs?
    Higher stomach pH