MIC 541-Exam 4-Antimicrobials III-1

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kyleannkelsey
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MIC 541-Exam 4-Antimicrobials III-1
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2013-04-14 12:11:00
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MIC 541 Exam Antimicrobials III
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MIC 541-Exam 4-Antimicrobials III-1
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  1. What doe PAE reflect?
    • The times it takes to make new proteins
    • Time of protein synthesis
  2. What term describes the continued antimicrobial activity after an antibiotic has fallen below the MIC?
    Post-Antibiotic Effect
  3. Slow dissociation of a drug has what effect on the PAE?
    • Long PAE
    • Delayed regrowth
  4. Fast dissociation of a drug has what effect on the PAE?
    • Short PAE
    • Fast regrowth
  5. Peak:MIC ration is the same as what other ratio?
    Cmax:MIC
  6. Cmax:MIC can also be called what?
    Peak:MIC
  7. The toxicity of Aminoglycosides is related to what factor?
    Tissue uptake not frequency
  8. The tissue uptake is an important factor for the toxicity of what drug?
    Aminoglycosides
  9. Number and frequency of doses are important for what antibiotics?
    Aminoglycosides
  10. A single dose once a day is more effective with Aminoglycosides than multiples throughout the day (T/F)?
    False, the efficacy stayed the same between groups receiving a single dose and those receiving multiple
  11. What improvements were found with switching from a 3 times daily regimen of aminoglycosides to a once a day higher dose?
    • Shortened duration of therapy
    • Decreased nephrotoxicity fro 5% to 1.2%
  12. In the study presented in class, how was the nephrotoxicity and duration of therapy reduced for Aminoglycosides?
    By giving a once daily dose (versus 3x a day)
  13. The Cmax:MIC ratio is not critical for what general type of antibiotics?
    Dose-independant
  14. Dose independant antibiotics are not dependant on what pharmacodynamic ratio?
    Peak:MIC
  15. The higher the dose, the longer a patient will remain above what?
    The MIC
  16. A patient will remain over the MIC longer under what conditions?
    A larger dose
  17. What ways can you maximize the time above the MIC?
    • Higher doses
    • More doses
    • Continuous infusion
  18. If one antibiotic is good for the patient, will two be better?
    Not necessarily
  19. What is additivity?
    resultant is the sum of the separate effect of two antibiotics
  20. What is Synergy?
    resultant is greater than the sum of the additive effects of two antibiotics
  21. What is the term for the sum of the separate effects of two antibiotics?
    Additive
  22. What is the term for the situation where the effects of two antibiotics are greater than the sum of their additive effects?
    Synergy
  23. What does Indifference mean?
    the result of using two drugs is the equivalent to the activity of the pore potent drug
  24. What is Antagonism?
    When the result of using two drugs is significantly less than additive effect
  25. What is the term for the situation where the result of using two drugs is the same as using the more potent one?
    Indifference
  26. What is the term for the situation where the result of using two drugs is less than the additive effects of the drugs?
    Antagonism
  27. Name the three drug combinations discussed in class that have synergystic effects:
    • Penicillin-Aminoglycoside Enterococci
    • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxole
    • Synercid = Streptogramin A and Streptogramin B

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